Bachelor thesis 3d animation
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THESIS 3D Animation 2013 : Nightmare Together : Digital Media
Thesis 3D Animation 2013 : Nightmare Together By : Pornsiri Klaewyotha 52020641 Digital Media at Sripatum University.
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Blogging is the New Persuasive Essay. As an English teacher, I#8217;ve had numerous conversations with college professors who lament the writing skills of their first year students. But not all writing. Most students are capable of solid expository writing. Bachelor Thesis! It#8217;s their skill with persuasive writing that#8217;s the problem.
Specifically, they#8217;re weak at writing a thesis statement that can be argued. Impression Essay! I spend three years teaching my high school students how to write a persuasive essay. For many students, it takes that long. (And I#8217;m lucky to have them that long in my school.) Part of the bachelor thesis 3d animation, problem is that our current school systems #8212; and related grading not just in Canada #8212; aren#8217;t great at producing independent thinkers. Without this ability, it#8217;s hard to create a great thesis statement, anticipate the arguments against it, and then compose your own argument in light of what you understand about the pros and cons of an issue. Bachelor 3d Animation! So for three years, I write for them, and essay with them.
We talk about opening paragraphs, and they learn how to thesis 3d animation, write them with their thesis statement either as the a dissertation in apa, first or last sentence. (The latter requires more skill.) They learn to use transition words, embed quotations to support their argument, consider the advantages of active vs. passive voice, vary their sentences, and many other skills, all in the hope of bachelor, creating a strong argument. The truth is lately I#8217;ve come to question the point of much of this. Does the average person, once they leave school, spend a lot of time composing academic essays? Is this the best way for our students to show their learning? In some places, the academic 5 paragraph essay is hailed as the Holy Grail of non-fiction writing achievement. Yet even if a student can become a great persuasive essay writer, they#8217;re still only semi-literate, at least according to the definition of 21st Century Literacies. While traditional essay writing may not help alleviate this situation, I think blogging can.
Here#8217;s the problem; Blogging is an entirely different beast. And one of the things I#8217;ve learned about my students is that they don#8217;t necessarily transfer a skill they#8217;ve learned in one area to another without difficulty, or even prompting. For one, the paragraphing is different. The large, solid paragraphs of prose that can be found in a dissertation in apa a typical persuasive essay, can feel arduous and cumbersome to all but the most determined reader. Instead, blog paragraphs tend to be shorter. It allows the piece to feel fluid and speeds up the rate at which your reader reads (often through the glare of 3d animation, a computer monitor or on a phone or tablet screen). And while the effective blogger still uses transition words, as many aren#8217;t necessary to grading system, provide the piece with a feeling of fluidity and coherence. Sometimes a paragraph is one simple sentence, used for emphasis. Thesis 3d Animation! Another thing is the thesis statement. Its placement, in a blog, is research thesis up for grabs. Did you catch where mine is?
Actually, I haven#8217;t written it yet. Huh?! Blogging also requires a different voice. Bachelor Thesis! The way I blog isn#8217;t quite how I talk, but it#8217;s no where close to how I write a formal essay. Furthermore, the essay about cell phones should in school, voice used in blogging needs to be rich, sharp and distinct, to gain an audience. Bachelor! And while some may argue that academic writing could stand to have a bit more colour and flair, I#8217;m not sure that#8217;s currently the accepted norm (although I wish it was). In a formal essay, I would never use a sentence fragment.
Ever. Essay! In a blog, it provides emphasis. Nor would I use slang in an essay. But here? Yep. In one of my posts, I double-dog dared my readers. Could you imagine double-dog daring anyone in an academic essay? If you try it, let me know the result. Another thing that changes is providing your reader with evidence to support your points. In teaching the typical formal essay, I show my students how to thesis, quote directly, indirectly, and using individual words.
Blogs still use direct quotes, but an essay, indirect quote can be as simple as a vague mention and a link. I think blogging is the new persuasive essay -my thesis, finally. Truth is, I love writing essays. There#8217;s something satisfying about rendering the chaos of thesis 3d animation, thoughts into an elegant form. But I love blogging more.
It feels like playing. I also find it more useful. Myths Essay! While our students will need to know how to write essays to get through university, many won#8217;t use it after that, unless they remain in academia. I think writing and persuasive thinking skills are important. However, I question the current products we require of students as proof of their learning. Most of the essays written by bachelor thesis 3d animation, our students likely end up in the garbage or the computer trash can.
And most are for an audience of one. Essay About Phones In School! Blogging has the potential to reach and influence many. Furthermore, it has greater potential for being a life-long skill. And isn#8217;t that our goal in education? People from all walks and professions blog for the purpose of teaching, creating, and informing. A number of my recent Masters courses didn#8217;t require papers; instead, they required blogging. Why? Because blogging is the new persuasive essay. If we#8217;re trying to bachelor, prepare our students to essay about be allowed, think critically and argue well, they need to be able to blog. It allows for interaction.
It allows for bachelor thesis, ideas to be tested. And the best posts anywhere in cyberspace tend to fast paper, have a point that can be argued. I think blogging across the curriculum, not just in Language Arts, allows for both formative and summative assessment. Blogs allow us to see the progression in the development of both thinking and writing. It may actually take more talent and bachelor thesis skill to create an interesting persuasive post (or series of review, posts) on the French Revolution than a traditional essay.
We need to thesis, teach blogging as a skill. Impression! Students definitely need to understand how and why the mechanics (and style) of blogging are different. Grade One blogger (Kathy Cassidy) The solution? Blogging needs to start earlier, much earlier. I read recently of 3d animation, a kindergarten teacher who blogs with her students. A Dissertation! Great idea. There#8217;s a teacher in bachelor 3d animation my division who does amazing things with her grade one class. I#8217;m not proposing that you need to do things radically different. Teach whatever you teach for Language Arts, or other subjects, but include a blog component.
So if you#8217;re teaching sentence structure, teach your students to create complete sentences while blogging. Blogs, like traditional writing, need great structure. Antebellum! If you#8217;re focusing on capitalization or punctuation, transfer this skill to blog writing as well. If you#8217;re teaching paragraph structure, teach students the paragraph structure required for traditional essays and bachelor thesis that for blogs. They#8217;re different. Explain why. It#8217;s likely they won#8217;t be good at fast food research thesis, it at first. But there is merit to the quote, #8220;Anything worth doing, is worth doing badly.#8221; A middle years teacher at bachelor 3d animation, my school used to stress out cell in school when we talked about student writing. She wanted to know if she was teaching them enough. My reply: #8220;All I need them to do is write solid paragraphs. If they can do that, I can teach them all kinds of things.#8221; Really, everything I teach is either an thesis, addition to, or a subtraction from, a solid paragraph.
My work builds on her work. Essay In School! I don#8217;t need her to teach what I teach. That#8217;s my job. But without her previous work, mine becomes much more difficult. The same is true with blogging. Starting from scratch with blogging in grade 10 isn#8217;t impossible. Bachelor Thesis! But we could do so much more if they already had the basics.
In order to food research, write well, you need to write a lot. Thesis 3d Animation! If you don#8217;t currently teach your students to blog, please start. Our students need you to. And if you already teach your students to blog, keep it up. Because blogging is an important 21st century skill. It#8217;s the new persuasive essay. Latest posts by Shelley Wright (see all) Are You Ready to questions, Join the Slow Education Movement? - August 26, 2014 Academic Teaching Doesn#039;t Prepare Students for thesis 3d animation, Life - November 7, 2013 Start with Why: The power of student-driven learning - June 21, 2013. Shelley, I love this!! I started using Kidblog with my 3rd graders last year, and looped up with them this year.
Their 4th grade blogs were much improved, and I enjoyed watching them begin to referencing in apa, develop their own blogging #8220;style#8221;. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation! I did get some negative comments from both parents and other teachers that this was not #8220;writing.#8221; They felt it was too casual and too unstructured. (I#8217;ll admit, the Grammar Nazi in myths essay me gasped when I saw sentences in bachelor thesis your blog beginning with #8220;and.#8221;) In lieu of a research paper this year, my students created Glogs that contained text boxes with information (well written paragraphs), but also allowed links, images, and a personal design. Controlling Essay! They loved it! I think you are absolutely right that students need to understand the difference. There are times when more formal writing is bachelor thesis 3d animation necessary, so I#8217;m sure to antebellum essay questions, teach it and require it on certain assignments. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation! I love it though that blogging enables them to discover their writing style and voice. Blogging does feel like playing, and kids love to essay, play. If blogging makes them love to write, I think we#8217;re fools not to thesis 3d animation, encourage it! Thanks for a great post!
Thanks, Patti. I think, unfortunately, there are many people who don#8217;t see the point or value of blogging. My students, for the most part, have always enjoyed it. What I disgree with is teaching only myths essay academic writing in schools. I think there are many formats our students need to thesis, learn #8212; blogging being only one. I think there#8217;s value to controlling, academic writing, but most of 3d animation, our kids aren#8217;t going to become academics, and that#8217;s a good thing #128578; Throughout high school I was taught that you couldn#8217;t start a sentence with because or and.
Then I went to controlling, university and was told you could. Bachelor 3d Animation! Boy was that a shock! When I was in college I was taught not to use the first person pronoun in my writing, EVER. Then I went to graduate school (Harvard) and everybody did it! Shocked again. Patti, thanks for posting links to keep me updated. I would love to try this with my kids this year but I need to be able to do it too! Great blog post on antebellum essay, writing.
I#8217;m constantly trying to find more and various ways to have students write in my Grade 8 US History class. Bachelor Thesis! Part of my task is to prepare them for the persuasive essay format on the ACT and essay cell should the MME (Michigan Merit Exam). Thesis 3d Animation! Your blog was helpful. Thanks. Thesis! As I started reading your blog I was thinking, I teach some of those things to bachelor 3d animation, my fourth graders. However, it seems after fourth grade the writing drops to a minimal until it is tested again in controlling impression 7th grade. (Or at least that#8217;s the way it appears to me). I introduced blogging to bachelor 3d animation, my students 2 years ago and they loved it! It inspired more students to write as they had the global audience (which I think is referencing a big draw).
This year my students enjoyed it as well. However, I never really thought about the bachelor, difference between writing in a blog and writing formally but will be discussing it with this year#8217;s class. Really, sharing your writing via a blog is exciting especially when you receive comments. I#8217;ll be sharing your post around as I would love to get more teachers to see the importance of blogging! Thanks for sharing. Thanks, Nancy! Students having an authentic audience is essay phones should in school important. Thesis 3d Animation! That#8217;s why we normally write. We have something to related, communicate to someone, and we choose the best medium for it, as well as an appropriate style.
I wonder what Language Arts would become if we thought of it as a communications class? This rings true for me in every paragraph. I have recently begun a blogging project with some very able Year 10 students (please have a look at my blog!) and there has been quite a lot of bachelor 3d animation, resistance along the lines of #8220;What#8217;s the food paper thesis, point?#8221; Your emphasis on moving with the times instead of stubbornly sticking to tradition strikes a resonant chord with my own teaching. Please keep this up, you have just made my day! I think, sometimes, kids don#8217;t see the point. They#8217;re not really used to having any of their work having a point or a real audience. I found that once my students got used to thesis 3d animation, doing work that was authentic and myths essay meaningful, the #8220;what#8217;s the point?#8221; stopped. While I agree with much of the fine print of your argument, specifically notions of voice and your ideas about what good writing should feel/sound like, it seems to me that your premise is false.
The blog/ persuasive essay duality is bachelor 3d animation a false dichotomy. Certainly, students should consider form and antebellum essay questions purpose when they write, but they shouldn#8217;t learn, and we shouldn#8217;t teach, that blogs are all short paragraphs richly voiced. Great essays, and great blogs, can also be written with long and well voiced paragraphs. I think we do our students and each other a disservice when we promote, teach, or otherwise create these sorts of false either/ors. (The same is true of the grammar policing we do often at school, evidenced by Patti#8217;s mention of using a conjunction at 3d animation, the beginning of a sentence in a comment above.) Good writing works. We can explore and explain why it works, but it#8217;s never as simple as following all the fast food research paper, rules for the particular container or mode or genre. It#8217;s in the playful fiddling with all of those that good writing emerges. Thanks for engaging my brain here.
I agree that good writing is good writing, and I don#8217;t believe that blogs or the persuasive essay is an either/or thing. 3d Animation! I think both should happen, but where I currently work, it doesn#8217;t. I see too often the questions, academic essay hailed as the most essential skill a student can develop. I think the reason behind it is laudable;students should be able to argue their point of view. But too often there is no authentic audience or task attached to it, and it becomes for students another hoop to jump to get the #8220;A#8221;.
I think the thing that bothers me the most about it is the heirarchy that develops around kids who are considered #8220;academic#8221;, those who can write the bachelor, essay, and those who are not. This is bad for kids and teachers, so lately I#8217;ve come to ask why are we doing all of this, and myths essay aren#8217;t there more important skills they can learn? I#8217;m not sure I agree with you on the long paragraphs in a blog. I think you have to be a great writer to pull it off, and I haven#8217;t read a lot of those. But that#8217;s also what I tell my students.
I don#8217;t tell them they can#8217;t do it. Instead, I tell them they have to be a strong writer to make it work. And for some of them, that#8217;s the challenge they need. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation! They want to see if they can do it because they desire to be a strong writer. I teach composition at the community college level and trying to break the myths essay, 5 paragraph habit is one of the bachelor 3d animation, first things I work with them on.
That and the act of critical thinking and then writing down those critical thoughts. Essay! I think a blog is a great way to show students there is more than one way to express themselves. I am also a firm believer in blogging with my students! I have used Kidblog for the past two years with my 5th graders., and it is an amazing tool to create motivated writers! #8220;Write On!: Why I Love Kidblog!#8221; I like and appreciate the fact that you made your points and also demonstrated them. I agree that paragraphs must be short for continuity, ease of flow and for referring back.
I would add that you can include pics, vids, links, graphs, etc. to add flair and bachelor thesis 3d animation information to your persuasive blog/ opinion post. Also, when I teach blogs in Writers Craft (gr 12) I make them aware that their audience is potentially the rest of the world. Daunting. And it makes them want to proofread a lot more and to consider the impression essay, attractiveness of their blog and their writing style. Think about this: It is incredible that we as teachers can teach writing in such a way that the teacher isn#8217;t the only one whoever sees their writing. This is a huge shift and speaks to the way s of the bachelor 3d animation, world of the next generation. Controlling Impression Essay! Until someone comes up with an bachelor thesis 3d animation, #8220;The Elements of Blog Style#8221; that Bud and Tom and Shelley and others agree deserves respect, we don#8217;t have a real standard to go by. Shelley describes what makes sense to her #8212; Bud Hunt, a respected National Writing Project proponent demurs.
No doubt others do as well. Tom says that #8220;paragraphs must be short for research paper, continuity, ease of flow and for referring back.#8221; I#8217;m not sure it is a #8220;must#8221; but in nearly a decade of editing group blogs and online diaries with a hundred or more educators, my sense is that this is *generally* a good rule of thumb. It seems to me that the blog author needs a very good reason to publish long paragraphs that will appear on a screen at an unpredictable size and width (density) and be viewed by all kinds of eyes with all kinds of vision challenges. Certainly the writing will need to be compelling! I don#8217;t know the history of the long paragraph (chances are I#8217;ll be researching it this week to satisfy my demon), but I#8217;m guessing that long paragraphs are the residual of bachelor thesis, several thousand years of essay questions, writing on smooth flat rocks and hides and papyrus and hard-to-get pulp paper printed a sheet at a time. Humans crammed as much as they could into the scarce space. 3d Animation! Nothing scarce about cyberspace. Why not change the rules? Nostalgia for writing styles is okay I certainly have some myself. But nostalgia is not a good basis for contemporary rulemaking.
Here#8217;s an excellent way to create an authentic audience for myths essay, your students! #8220;Quadblogging:Creating a Global Connection!#8221; Very interesting food for thought. Thesis 3d Animation! To be sure, blogging provides a more authentic audience, something that is essay about cell in school sorely needed! I also agree that when it comes to writing, there is no #8220;form#8221; with blogs. The issue is that students, and bachelor the rest of us, must realize that when something is written such as a persuasive essay, there should be some points of reference. What I find is, that due to a society that cannot focus but for short periods of time, thoughts are expressed based on unfounded suppositions. Students have to realize that more formal, traditional writing, gives them practice on conventions such as writing full words, sentences, etc. and some other standards of grammar. Not old fashioned, but keeps things from essay questions, becoming a free-for-all. Thesis 3d Animation! I think blogging should provide students with the opportunity to practice using conventions and fast food paper thesis form #8212; in 3d animation an authentic context. I don#8217;t think that only formal writing can, or should, do this. I think one of the things we often forget when teaching writing is that we#8217;re teaching them to communicate, and that in a dissertation writing there is a #8220;code#8221; of communication that has developed over bachelor, the centuries between reader and writer. There are reasons we write and punctuate as we do.
Instead, we often teach rules, rather than the intimate relationship between reader and writer. I think the essay, latter is bachelor much more persuasive for students and creates better thinkers and writers in impression essay the long run. Thank you for that article. Bachelor! I#8217;ve been perusing articles on education for about three hours now, and I am glad I came across yours.(catching up on my education articles) Not only food paper thesis do we need to thesis, move toward the food research, realities of our students experiences, but there is room for interpretation on how we teach to it. We can argue all day long on the who#8217;s and how#8217;s , but at the end of the bachelor thesis 3d animation, day is your writing effective. Review Related Literature! In whatever form or voice you choose. peoples response to your blog will be the best indicator. Now, how about those poorly constructed e-mails.
Would someone please blog on the voice and content of e-mails. If I#8217;m not written into your will, I#8217;m not reading a long drawn out e-mail. Peter, no one is suggesting that blogging should become a #8216;free-for all#8221;, it#8217;s all about creating enthusiasm for longer pieces of writing that create and sustain a point of bachelor thesis 3d animation, view. Of course we should insist on standard English, but we can do that when setting up the success criteria for blogging just as we would for a formal essay. If blogging gets students to engage with and develop their process of a dissertation in apa, writing, I#8217;m all for it, especially if it helps students understand that they may express themselves in writing through a variety of structures. 3d Animation! As a high school teacher I spend an review literature system, enormous amount of time and energy trying to convince students that not every idea they have needs to be one that can be expressed in five paragraphs.
I do worry, however, that the informality of blogs may encourage vague and formless expression of thesis, feelings and suppositions. Controlling Essay! Though the academic essay is only one mode of thesis, written expression it does teach students important skills that transfer to other modes: the structuring of ideas, the presentation and rigorous analysis of evidence, the impression essay, effects of sentence structure and thesis voice on meaning, to myths essay, name but a few. Of course, having students write blogs can also teach them these skills if their blogs are held to certain standards. The five-paragraph essay may be some dirty bathwater that needs to be tossed, but let#8217;s make sure to save the thesis 3d animation, baby, the hallmarks of good writing. I absolutely agree that blogging is an excellent platform for writing and essay cell phones be allowed provides the with an authentic audience.
I recently attended the ISTE conference and attended a session on establishing connections through blogging presented by Lisa Parisi Brian Crosby. Your blog just reaffirms everything that I took away from this session. Lisa and Brian#8217;s students#8217; writing is truly amazing because, as you mentioned, they have the opportunity to use their own voice to take on issues that matter to them, then when they receive responses to their posts, they are further inspired to write even more. I have the thesis, opportunity to coordinate a Teaching American History Grant,, primarily targeted for fifth grade teachers who lay the impression, foundations of American History in their instructional program. Bachelor 3d Animation! One of our grant goals is to impression, utilize Web 2.0 technology as an instructional and collaboration tool. Bachelor 3d Animation! This past year the teachers created their own blogs and referencing in apa have been utilizing them primarily as a means of communicating/collaborating with each other. The goal for this next year is to have each of the teachers create a blog in their classroom (or utilize one they have already created) so that students can utilize this platform for 3d animation, writing, with the goal of having others responding to in school, their blogs. Since persuasive writing is one of the types of writing taught in bachelor 3d animation fifth grade, I believe there will be several opportunities for the students to utilize these persuasive writing techniques in their blogs.
I hope you enjoyed ISTE this week I remember coming back from myths essay, my first one quite overwhelmed! There are no large conferences like that in Ontario and 3d animation it took me a while to unpack all that I learned. Although I have only been blogging for 6 years, I#8217;ve noticed big changes. Blogs or #8216;weblogs#8217; used to phones, be places where folks shared their travels and bachelor thesis learning on the web so that others could follow their links and controlling impression have some understanding of bachelor, where they received inspiration, new connections or knowledge. Myths Essay! Now, you#8217;re lucky to have any links at bachelor, all shared, and if they are, they are often links back to fast research, the writer#8217;s own work! Don#8217;t get me wrong, I love that blogs give students an authentic audience (especially since persuasive writing is a part of our curriculum here in Ontario as early as the bachelor thesis, primary grades) and I#8217;m not a #8216;purist#8217; about them. I have been using and referencing a dissertation in apa promoting blogging as a part of balanced literacy since 2006 and bachelor believe they can serve many purposes. I just hope that we do let blogs stand apart from some of essay should be allowed, our traditional forms of writing so that we aren#8217;t trying to do old school things with new tools. Many unread and discarded blogs exist because teachers jump onto thesis, the blogging bandwagon without scaffolding students to real conversations and impression essay authentic purposes for writing. Thanks for bringing up some important conversations here. #128578; I completely agree with what you#8217;ve said, especially your point, #8220;Many unread and discarded blogs exist because teachers jump onto the blogging bandwagon without scaffolding students to thesis 3d animation, real conversations and authentic purposes for writing.#8221; I think this is one of those #8220;21st C. skills#8221; that students need. Fast Research! What does it mean to bachelor thesis, speak and blog authentically?
This will be an especially difficult thing for many high school students to answer since they#8217;ve often had few authentic writing experiences in their academic career. But this ia an important discussion! This is great! I worked with 4th and5th graders this past year on blogging. They did an amazing job! Really only since Jan#8230;came so far. Thanks for this thinking! I think writing for more than an audience of antebellum, 1 changed their effort, energy and enthusiasm! It#8217;s amazing what kids can do in such a short time. Thanks for 3d animation, sharing! I think Wright brings up a lot of good points about blogging in this article.
I remember writing persuasive essays and feeling stuck to pick a topic. When I did settle on one it felt so typical of a persuasive argument. We are pushing more and more for authentic practice and work from students and fast food research thesis blogging is an bachelor thesis 3d animation, excellent way to practice naturally. There are blogs about everything under the sun that you could allow students to use in order to start with and practice blogging. A teacher could then create a class blog and referencing a dissertation in apa post: Who has the best blog in the class?
Hook, line, and sink her! What better way to bachelor thesis 3d animation, get kids into it then going right to what they are passionate about. I could only imagine how long that blog would be and the many mini-lessons it could contain. Some trouble I experienced with persuasive writing was creating the opposing sides arguments. Through blogging students will actually have those arguments given and then will have to decide which are viable and antebellum essay questions should be included or addressed in their own writing. 3d Animation! Blogs exist on every topic, even topics that may not be recognizably controversial. This is another reason why blogging to teach persuasive writing is review related beneficial to students. Blogs are less intimidating because they are short bits of information and the reader has preference over which ones to give more attention to bachelor, and which to ignore. I would imagine blogging would lead to critical thinking because you are concisely trying to make your point.
No one wants to read a long blog post. That#8217;s part of referencing a dissertation in apa, why people blog in the first place. Blogging is thesis also able to reach far more people and cause action than an essay about cell should, academic essay whose audience is bachelor thesis far less accessible. A Dissertation In Apa! MyCustomWritings.com essays have absolutely no plagiarism whatsoever! Our team of bachelor thesis, professional writers are not only dependable but provide plagiarism-free papers. To put you at impression essay, ease, we attach a plagiarism report to each and 3d animation every order. A Dissertation In Apa! Therefore, once you place an order with us, rest assured that you will receive a creative, well-researched and documented essay, term paper, coursework or dissertation. We are 100% genuine! Hey Shelly, I think this is an excellent blog, I really enjoy your outlook on education and your core beliefs that teachers need to move forward with the 21st century. I#8217;m a Grade 10 English teacher in the Middle East and I was wondering if you had any suggestions for websites that would be ideal for getting my students excited about bachelor thesis blogging?
I think it#8217;s really important when students first start blogging that they research and write about things that really matter to them. It might be one way to infuse student choice into the classroom. Myths Essay! Here are some resources that you might find helpful to get started: And this link has pretty much everything you could ever need! Hope this helps! Thank you so much for your blog post it was a gift that Carol Mayne sent me as I have had a huge investment in blogging with my classes. Thesis! I#8217;m constantly learning and in apa revising the process, but love how it has transformed my class and the writing (and reading) my kids are doing. I look forward to more posts by you! Pamela Hunnisett (Calgary) I just wanted to let you know that this post inspired me in the beginning of the year, and my students are now blogging on an (almost) weekly basis. It#8217;s transforming their writing and my classroom. Thank you! That#8217;s terrific to hear!
Thanks for sharing your success it helps to propel me forward in my own journey #128578; Can I just say what a comfort to find a person that truly knows what they#8217;re talking about over thesis, the internet. You definitely realize how to review related literature, bring a problem to light and thesis make it important. A lot more people must look at this and myths essay understand this side of the story. It#8217;s surprising you#8217;re not more popular given that you definitely possess the gift. Shelly, I enjoyed reading your thoughts and too agree that it is never too early to start teaching our students how to be productive digital citizens. Bachelor! In the age of IM and questions text messaging I was afraid writing in complete sentences with thought was going to 3d animation, increasingly become a lost art. Children at a dissertation, an early age are thirst for knowledge and thesis 3d animation just as they are able to more readily learn another language, digital literacy should be considered one of importance.
The skills that you develop in writing essays should be evident in your blog posts. In fact, these skills should be evident in all of your writing exercises. Beautifully structured paragraphs and fast food paper concise sentences are always a joy to read. My brother suggested I may like this blog. He was entirely right. Thesis 3d Animation! This publish actually made my day. You can not imagine simply how so much time I had spent for this information! Thanks for the post. It clarifies my thoughts on the matter, as I sooo agree with your points. (Grammar police on the #8216;so#8217;). previous comments are great I just say that you defined fabulously. Related Literature Grading System! This is bachelor 3d animation fact writing can be very helpful just like essay writing which is something more factor by writing an essay is variation use of fast food research paper, punctuation.
The fact about essay writing is 3d animation that it really give your english a better role model for student and provide non copy content. Blogging has greater potential for being a life-long skill. Shelley! Thank you for writing this. Antebellum Essay Questions! We#8217;ve started a new project-based academy at The American School of thesis 3d animation, Lima and students are constantly blogging. Best of myths essay, all, they#8217;re loving it and enjoying writing again. Here#8217;s one of many great examples: http://gisellasilva.weebly.com/1/post/2014/03/your-college-search-should-start-with-a-long-look-in-the-mirror.html.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of bachelor, C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in antebellum, the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of bachelor thesis 3d animation, their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in impression, most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.
However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to thesis 3d animation, and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of food paper thesis, C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto bachelor, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at myths essay, the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the thesis 3d animation, function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at impression essay, pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of thesis, global variables, you can use regular table operations over impression essay, an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do.
When a C function is created, it is thesis possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at essay, specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Bachelor? Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the controlling impression, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to 3d animation, store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by paper, other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in bachelor thesis, your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by about cell be allowed in school, the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for bachelor thesis, other purposes.
Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Paper? A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for thesis, each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by food, calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Bachelor 3d Animation? Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Impression? (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on bachelor the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at cell should in school, its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the thesis 3d animation, function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. Impression? ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and thesis 3d animation only if it cannot fill the impression essay, request. When nsize is not zero and 3d animation osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and essay cell be allowed osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for bachelor thesis 3d animation, the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and in apa returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the bachelor thesis, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the about phones be allowed in school, following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto bachelor, the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to controlling, nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the bachelor 3d animation, returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is review grading pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).
The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is 3d animation balanced: at its end, the stack is back to referencing in apa, its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for bachelor 3d animation, C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the food research paper thesis, way parameters and bachelor 3d animation results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in referencing, its stack in bachelor thesis 3d animation, direct order (the first argument is myths essay pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at bachelor thesis 3d animation, index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in impression essay, direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results.
As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and bachelor thesis 3d animation sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. Myths Essay? It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. Bachelor Thesis? This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by controlling impression essay, this state. Thesis 3d Animation? On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the controlling impression, host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the bachelor thesis 3d animation, function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Referencing A Dissertation In Apa? Concatenation is performed following the thesis 3d animation, usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only a dissertation in apa one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the bachelor thesis, given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and impression essay index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the bachelor 3d animation, indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of essay about phones should be allowed, any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the bachelor, garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the antebellum essay, parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by bachelor thesis 3d animation, 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is essay questions controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the impression, new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Bachelor 3d Animation? The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. About Cell Phones Be Allowed In School? If ud is bachelor not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the about cell phones be allowed in school, value at the given index.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto bachelor 3d animation, the stack the essay questions, value of the global name . 3d Animation? It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is referencing a dissertation in apa not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the thesis, value at the given valid index and k is the a dissertation in apa, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). 3d Animation? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8).
Returns the index of the referencing a dissertation, top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an thesis, empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
By default it is myths essay a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and thesis 3d animation 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the review related system, value at the given acceptable index is thesis 3d animation a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essay questions, value at the given acceptable index is bachelor a light userdata, and referencing a dissertation 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the bachelor 3d animation, value at should be allowed in school, the given acceptable index is nil , and bachelor thesis 3d animation 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the food thesis, value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is thesis a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essay, value at thesis, the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the fast food paper, value at bachelor thesis 3d animation, the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at essay questions, acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the thesis 3d animation, Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk.
If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the a dissertation, compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the bachelor thesis 3d animation, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and in apa loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to thesis 3d animation, read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function.
The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is paper thesis used for error messages and in bachelor, debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for impression, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an thesis 3d animation, opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto antebellum, the stack. 3d Animation? It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an review related, independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of bachelor, memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Referencing A Dissertation? A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is thesis 3d animation being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the antebellum questions, userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the bachelor thesis, table at the given index (the next pair after the myths essay, given key).
If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on thesis a key, unless you know that the key is cell phones should in school actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in 3d animation, luaconf.h . Through the referencing in apa, configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long).
Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in bachelor 3d animation, lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on antebellum essay the stack is exactly the bachelor thesis 3d animation, original error message. Myths Essay? Otherwise, errfunc is the 3d animation, stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the referencing a dissertation in apa, message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of bachelor, lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in fast food thesis, lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the bachelor thesis, error handler function.
LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is system created, it is thesis 3d animation possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is fast food research called.
To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the controlling impression essay, stack. The maximum value for n is bachelor thesis 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to fast research, a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in thesis, Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. Essay? It is similar to 3d animation, the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the grading, result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an thesis 3d animation, int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an essay questions, int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the bachelor, same C address. This macro is equivalent to myths essay, lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.
Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the thesis, given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the myths essay, function returns. 3d Animation? The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto controlling impression essay, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at bachelor thesis 3d animation, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto in apa, the stack.
Equivalent to 3d animation, lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). About Cell Phones Should? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the 3d animation, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at myths essay, the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the thesis, reader, passing along its data parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of controlling, any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the thesis, elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in myths essay, a given thread.
To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. 3d Animation? This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Controlling Essay? When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the bachelor thesis 3d animation, coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the antebellum essay questions, new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at thesis 3d animation, the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of antebellum essay, global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the bachelor thesis, new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at referencing in apa, the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in 3d animation, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to antebellum essay questions, this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter.
The Lua library is bachelor thesis fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for referencing a dissertation, a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the bachelor 3d animation, value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. Essay Cell Phones Should Be Allowed? That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is antebellum essay truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to 3d animation, a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in fast research paper thesis, the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the bachelor thesis 3d animation, pointer returned by essay, lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to thesis 3d animation, a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to controlling essay, its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is bachelor thesis a light userdata, returns its pointer. Food Research? Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an bachelor thesis, index to an empty stack position). Essay? The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by thesis, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the essay questions, writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the thesis 3d animation, stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the controlling essay, running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by bachelor thesis 3d animation, means of phones be allowed, functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and bachelor other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use.
To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the a dissertation, line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the bachelor thesis, string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the essay, current line where the given function is thesis executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Impression? Because functions in bachelor thesis 3d animation, Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.
The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Impression Essay? If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to thesis, how the function was called. (Lua uses the related grading system, empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of bachelor 3d animation, upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the antebellum essay, current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ).
To get information about a function you push it onto thesis 3d animation, the stack and start the what string with the myths essay, character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in thesis, the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the essay should, following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and thesis namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the fast paper thesis, function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the bachelor thesis, numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is myths essay a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an bachelor, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to myths essay, a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to thesis 3d animation, inspect (1 is the antebellum essay questions, first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the thesis 3d animation, variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is questions greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about thesis a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the fast paper, external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the thesis 3d animation, index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto about phones should in school, the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the thesis 3d animation, number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the food research paper thesis, following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is bachelor also set.
To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to controlling impression, hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on 3d animation which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the antebellum, interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the bachelor 3d animation, interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to impression essay, be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of bachelor thesis 3d animation, code, or when it jumps back in myths essay, the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by bachelor thesis, setting mask to antebellum essay questions, zero. Sets the value of thesis, a local variable of essay, a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). Bachelor 3d Animation? lua_setlocal assigns the impression essay, value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. Bachelor? It also pops the essay about cell phones be allowed, value from the bachelor thesis, stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is myths essay greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the 3d animation, value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at myths essay, the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. 3d Animation? Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the referencing, basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and thesis 3d animation have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to fast paper, check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of thesis 3d animation, these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Food? Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for bachelor thesis, other stack values.
Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in controlling impression essay, alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the thesis 3d animation, string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros.
Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the a dissertation, value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on thesis the stack, which is the value to essay about should be allowed, be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the bachelor thesis, call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:
This function never returns, but it is an research paper, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to thesis, build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Essay Questions? You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on 3d animation the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of questions, stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is.
You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is 3d animation balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the myths essay, stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Thesis? (The only should be allowed in school exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is 3d animation back to its level when the myths essay, buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and bachelor thesis 3d animation this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is essay cell phones be allowed in school no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of 3d animation, any type (including nil ) at controlling essay, position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the thesis 3d animation, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to referencing a dissertation in apa, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to bachelor thesis 3d animation, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of about cell phones in school, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number.
Checks whether the function argument narg is thesis 3d animation a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Controlling Impression Essay? Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is thesis 3d animation not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is essay about cell should be allowed not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is thesis 3d animation no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to essay phones should be allowed in school, go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is bachelor 3d animation a string and antebellum essay returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . Bachelor? See lua_type for the encoding of types for paper thesis, t . Checks whether the function argument narg is bachelor 3d animation a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and fast research thesis runs the given file.
It is 3d animation defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of related literature system, errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by bachelor 3d animation, fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the antebellum, field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . Bachelor Thesis? If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and myths essay pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the bachelor, string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to myths essay, by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the bachelor thesis, chunk in food research paper thesis, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and bachelor thesis returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.
Creates a new Lua state. Essay About Cell Phones Should In School? It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is bachelor thesis 3d animation a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the antebellum questions, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Thesis? Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to antebellum essay questions, a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is 3d animation a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Related Grading? Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is bachelor thesis a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length.
If the function argument narg is review related literature grading system a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is bachelor nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an essay, address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the thesis, size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the essay questions, use of buffer B leaving the thesis, final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).
A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . Controlling Impression? name is the function name and func is bachelor thesis 3d animation a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on a dissertation in apa the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the thesis, global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on antebellum essay questions it all functions in the list l . If there is thesis 3d animation a table in referencing a dissertation in apa, package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack.
Returns the name of the type of the value at bachelor thesis, the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the controlling impression essay, name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Bachelor? Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to myths essay, outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the bachelor thesis, official C API and are provided as separate C modules.
Currently, Lua has the research paper thesis, following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to bachelor thesis 3d animation, these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Phones In School? Alternatively, it can open them individually by thesis, calling luaopen_base (for the antebellum essay questions, basic library), luaopen_package (for the bachelor thesis 3d animation, package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in literature grading, your application, you should check carefully whether you need to 3d animation, provide implementations for controlling essay, some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to thesis 3d animation, the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Cell Be Allowed? Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the thesis 3d animation, collector (see §2.10).
Returns the referencing, previous value for 3d animation, pause . Fast Food Paper Thesis? setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the 3d animation, collector (see §2.10). Essay About Cell Should? Returns the previous value for bachelor, step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the essay questions, message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the 3d animation, error to where the referencing a dissertation in apa, function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of 3d animation, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an about cell phones be allowed in school, iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the 3d animation, construction.
will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to essay questions, func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to bachelor, =(load) . Similar to controlling, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Bachelor 3d Animation? Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the cell phones should be allowed in school, second argument is 3d animation absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is related grading system empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for bachelor 3d animation, numeric indices . Food Research Thesis? (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the bachelor thesis, ipairs function.) The behavior of next is fast food undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in bachelor thesis 3d animation, the table. You may however modify existing fields. Review Related Literature Grading? In particular, you may clear existing fields.
Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is bachelor not propagated; instead, pcall catches the essay cell phones should be allowed, error and bachelor thesis 3d animation returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the fast research, call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is bachelor thesis 3d animation a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of questions, extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. Thesis 3d Animation? f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of referencing, other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the bachelor thesis 3d animation, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1).
In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the myths essay, metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the thesis 3d animation, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. Antebellum Questions? By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and bachelor thesis returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is review literature system true if the bachelor 3d animation, call succeeds without errors.
In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Myths Essay? Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the bachelor thesis, execution of coroutine co . Research Thesis? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield.
If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called.
Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the 3d animation, execution of the controlling impression, calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an bachelor 3d animation, iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Essay About Cell Should In School? Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is thesis 3d animation a global table t with the given name, this table is the module.
Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and essay cell phones be allowed the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? For instance, if name is grading a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of bachelor thesis, field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. Impression? The function starts by looking into bachelor 3d animation the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is essay cell phones in school already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at bachelor, package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is essay guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the bachelor thesis 3d animation, path stored in about, package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to bachelor 3d animation, package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and impression essay has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the bachelor 3d animation, final value of fast paper thesis, package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the bachelor thesis, module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an referencing a dissertation, error. The path used by bachelor 3d animation, require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the fast food thesis, C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by 3d animation, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is myths essay a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of thesis 3d animation, these searchers in ascending order, with the antebellum, module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by bachelor, a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to a dissertation in apa, open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in thesis 3d animation, that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Essay Questions? For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to bachelor, open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the controlling, module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore.
Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . Bachelor? If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into essay phones one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the bachelor thesis, host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the impression, protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function.
It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the bachelor, C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by impression essay, the C library (which may depend on bachelor the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by antebellum essay, ANSI C. 3d Animation? As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for essay be allowed in school, a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ).
Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an thesis 3d animation, option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. Fast Food Thesis? When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at thesis 3d animation, position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Controlling? Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the thesis, string. Thus, the essay about cell should be allowed in school, last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the bachelor thesis, table string . It also sets a metatable for referencing in apa, strings where the __index field points to bachelor 3d animation, the string table.
Therefore, you can use the string functions in fast food research, object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the bachelor thesis 3d animation, two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per about phones should, line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at bachelor 3d animation, the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the referencing a dissertation, iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Thesis? The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in myths essay, repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the thesis, n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Essay About Cell Phones Should In School? The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is bachelor thesis passed as a sole argument. If the essay cell phones should be allowed in school, value returned by the table query or by the function call is bachelor a string or a number, then it is antebellum questions used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples:
A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? The following combinations are allowed in food paper thesis, describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. Thesis 3d Animation? %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Cell In School? %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to bachelor thesis, escape the magic characters. Referencing In Apa? Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by 3d animation, a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. Antebellum? [ set ] : represents the class which is the bachelor 3d animation, union of fast food research paper, all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the 3d animation, octal digits, and review related literature [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the bachelor thesis, ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of myths essay, set , where set is interpreted as above.
For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and thesis 3d animation other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the review system, class [a-z] may not be equivalent to thesis 3d animation, %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by myths essay, ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of bachelor, characters in fast food thesis, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the bachelor thesis 3d animation, item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.
A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the impression, subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the thesis, subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the myths essay, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.
A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in thesis 3d animation, the table library assume that the about cell phones in school, table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the bachelor, result of the length operator. Inserts element value at essay, position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of thesis, table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the controlling, table has no positive numerical indices. Bachelor? (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.)
Removes from table the element at myths essay, position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for bachelor thesis, pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an essay, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the thesis 3d animation, arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of fast food research paper thesis, y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the 3d animation, quadrant of the result. Fast Food Paper Thesis? (It also handles correctly the case of bachelor, x being zero.) Returns the a dissertation, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in bachelor, radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the myths essay, angle x (given in thesis 3d animation, radians) in degrees.
Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to be allowed, x . Returns the remainder of the bachelor thesis, division of antebellum essay questions, x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and bachelor thesis e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of related grading system, x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to 3d animation, compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in related literature, radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in thesis, the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers.
Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the about cell phones in school, tangent of bachelor thesis 3d animation, x (assumed to be in a dissertation, radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to bachelor thesis, set a default input file and myths essay a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from bachelor thesis 3d animation C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on grading system failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.
Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the bachelor thesis 3d animation, end of referencing a dissertation, file, it returns nil (to finish the bachelor thesis, loop) and automatically closes the food, file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is bachelor thesis equivalent to essay about cell be allowed in school, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in bachelor thesis, the mode specified in the string mode . Referencing A Dissertation? It returns a new file handle, or, in bachelor, case of errors, nil plus an food research, error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is thesis needed in some systems to review related, open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms.
Equivalent to bachelor thesis 3d animation, io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an review related literature, open file handle, closed file if obj is thesis 3d animation a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to myths essay, io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to thesis 3d animation, happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file.
Therefore, the fast food, construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Thesis? When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. Referencing? *a: reads the 3d animation, whole file, starting at the current position. On end of literature grading, file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of bachelor thesis 3d animation, line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of questions, characters, returning nil on end of file.
If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is 3d animation end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in impression essay, bytes from the bachelor thesis, beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the essay, call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the bachelor 3d animation, position to the end of the file, and returns its size.
Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. Review Literature? full: full buffering; output operation is performed only bachelor when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the fast food, last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . Thesis 3d Animation? The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is controlling essay implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of bachelor thesis 3d animation, CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of essay, this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time.
If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is thesis formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. Antebellum Essay Questions? After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and 3d animation zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code.
Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the review system, variable is 3d animation not defined. Deletes the controlling, file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the 3d animation, error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the food thesis, error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to bachelor thesis, change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored.
If locale is the empty string, the current locale is review related literature set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the bachelor 3d animation, string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the related literature grading, date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and thesis 3d animation day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and literature grading isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is thesis a number, whose meaning depends on your system.
In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the literature grading, meaning is not specified, and thesis the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. Referencing A Dissertation In Apa? The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. 3d Animation? (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the myths essay, functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. Thesis 3d Animation? You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the cell should, temptation to bachelor, use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow.
Moreover, several of referencing in apa, these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from thesis outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. A Dissertation? The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Thesis? Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the myths essay, user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the thesis, current hook function, the current hook mask, and essay the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the bachelor thesis, function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to phones should be allowed in school, get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. 3d Animation? If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the fast food, table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.
This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the 3d animation, stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and essay about in school raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the thesis, registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the fast food research, name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? The function returns nil if there is antebellum no upvalue with the 3d animation, given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook.
The string mask and the number count describe when the food research, hook will be called. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? The string mask may have the controlling impression essay, following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is bachelor thesis 3d animation called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is referencing a dissertation called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the bachelor thesis 3d animation, hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the controlling impression, event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . Thesis 3d Animation? For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Food Research Thesis? Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and bachelor level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Fast Research Paper? (You can call getinfo to check whether the bachelor thesis, level is controlling valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the bachelor thesis, local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ).
This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Essay About Cell Be Allowed? Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to bachelor 3d animation, be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for impression, an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and bachelor thesis so on.
Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to cell phones should be allowed in school, negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is thesis 3d animation called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is essay about should be allowed in school used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the bachelor, next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the essay about, use of bachelor, -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in literature system, Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of thesis 3d animation, a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the antebellum questions, location of the Lua interpreter may be different in thesis, your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.)
7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. Review Related Grading System? You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of thesis 3d animation, Lua. The vararg system changed from the food research paper thesis, pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in bachelor thesis, luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the about phones be allowed in school, implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting.
You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in bachelor 3d animation, these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in in apa, luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is 3d animation called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the questions, empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in bachelor, luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. Paper Thesis? You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. Bachelor? However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the essay about cell, path from package.path instead of from bachelor 3d animation LUA_PATH . About Be Allowed In School? Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is 3d animation deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of thesis, luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Importance Of Education In Our Life. A society which is uneducated cannot think on rational lines. In the medieval period, long before the renaissance, people often fought mindless wars that resulted in bloodshed as they were illiterate and ignorant. Thesis. Importance of education in modern times cannot be understated as it forms an impression essay integral part of our lives in following ways: Improve position in society: All money in the world will not give you satisfaction and prestige as the education can. Bachelor. Women were enslaved and looked down upon due to the lack of education. Food Research Paper Thesis. As they become literate the outlook of the society improved.
In fact, if you want to move within the certain segment of the people, it is important to be qualified or get a certain level of education. Eliminating superstitions: Superstitions have percolated to every part of the society with people blindly following them without any scientific base. They have existed since ancient times, however, educated person questions the age old customs and practices. He / she doesn’t follow the rituals blindly because change is the name of the game on the planet. Rational thinking: Believing anything without a reason is not the trait of an educated person. For instance, a farmer may not able to analyze the fertility of the soil and determine the type of the crops that are to be grown.
In olden times, in the absence of research, people used to pray to the rain gods for a good harvest. Therefore, education is necessary to bachelor 3d animation remove the different evils of the society. Education helps in evolution: Education plays an important role in the evolution of essay be allowed human life. Television became the household commodity in the 20th century while internet took over in 21st. Advancement in thesis technology is only possible due to the education.
Ignorant people are not able to understand the essay questions logic behind the natural phenomenon and are not able to develop a vision for 3d animation the future. Wide exposure: Through the use of research paper thesis educating, we come to know about the different cultures and traditions in the world. It helps people to become more tolerant of each other. Wide exposure enhances the knowledge base of the bachelor thesis individuals and prepares them to face the challenges of life in a better manner. In olden times, due to sheer ignorance, foreign travel was considered an fast research paper unholy activity and people had to undergo a purification process. Independent decision making: Education plays a very important role in decision making by gaining feedback from others. A logical person would plan accordingly before starting any business venture. If you are learned and knowledgeable, it is bachelor thesis 3d animation easier to plan the economic activity and controlling impression essay determine whether it is profitable.
Healthy lifestyle: Health is wealth is an old adage but the proverb holds a lot of meaning in modern times. People are now aware of the benefits of the vegetables and fruits however in past they were ignorant due to lack of education. As they are able to read, it is bachelor 3d animation possible to view the a dissertation in apa blogs related to bachelor health on the internet. More and more people know how fresh food provides vitamins and minerals to improve the immune system of the body. In addition, they have detailed knowledge about the symptoms that help them to get timely help from the diseases. Using new techniques to improve productivity: Education is review literature grading essential to incorporate new techniques to improve the productivity of the employees. For instance, if the workers are not educated, they cannot use the thesis machines which would help to boost the production. In other works, you have to be knowledgeable and skilled in a particular stream to perform various tasks in the modern world.
Farmers should also update their knowledge about the new methods of antebellum irrigation to make agriculture more effective. Ethical values: As people become more informed, they know what is right and what is wrong. Hence, the society in all likelihood would not resort to wars however ignorance breeds prejudices and hatred. Medieval and the first as well second world wars are the result of biased thinking due to bachelor lack of modern and rational education. Working in a cross-cultural environment: An illiterate person may not be able to migrate to antebellum questions an alien land and work with the natives however educated people would take it up as a challenge and do everything to achieve success. It is a wonderful attitude that develops due to the accumulation of knowledge perfectly capable of removing the darkness of ignorance. Growth of the country: Developing nations around the world have achieved 100% literacy. Educated society develops quickly because they are not bounded by bachelor thesis the narrow realms of caste, creed, and religion. Instead, it focuses on the problems that hamper daily living. The government elected by the educated citizens service the nation rather than ruling it.
A corruption free society is only possible when people are blessed with the antebellum essay true knowledge of life. Lower infant mortality rate: Educated mothers are in a better position to take care of the newborn infants. They consume nutritious food and supplements for the child so that he or she is born healthy. Mother listens to get doctors advice and bachelor thesis gets her kids immunized to prevent the paper thesis occurrence of life-threatening diseases. In addition, education parents focus on the all-round development of the children.
Education is responsible for bachelor thesis 3d animation achieving the goals in life: An ignorant individual would never be able to plan and achieve success. Fast Food Research. It is only possible with the help of sustained education at different levels. Without the bachelor capability to read, write and myths essay think, human life is no better than an animal. 3d Animation. Knowledge provides numerous means to the people to accomplish the goals. For instance, if you want to become a successful entrepreneur, it is necessary to get an education about the relevant business domain. Conclusion: Child attending schools are taught under the supervision of capable teachers. They understand the essence of research paper thesis life and gain invaluable knowledge about their surroundings. Bachelor Thesis. Fostering basic principles of questions humanity and reasoning, the modern education is an eye opener for every person on earth.
In short, a balanced life and reputed standing in society is only possible with the shining light of knowledge. This essay is also available in Spanish. I took the inspiration for this essay from ThePensters. They can help you in essay writing along with the educational process. Don’t forget to share your thoughts about importance of education in the comments below. importance of education importance of education essay importance of education in bachelor thesis 3d animation life education essay essay on importance of education importance of education in our life essay on education essay about education important of education Importance of education in society. 49 responses to “Importance Of Education In Our Life” There is no doubt education is really important for humans.
And I truly agree to your statement that education is not limited to paper thesis age. I recently read an article about a 92 years old lady who is pursuing a doctorate degree from Sydney University, Australia. Her name is Lis Kirkby. You can Google her name to know more about her. This proves that there is bachelor thesis no age limit to education. Tony, Thanks for sharing the story about Lis.
Truly inspiring! yes , you are absolutely right, sir. Can anyone tell me who the author to the commentary is? Without education, one couldn’t achieve big in his/her life. I’m not talking about the education you take from schools or college. There have been so many examples in the past when people who don’t hold any big degree in their hands but changed the world. Yeah, I strongly agree that. Yes i agree with you. Yes, because Education is the key to success.I hope you learn something about what I said it is short but brief . realy,education is very necessary for questions all human being it can not deny.if a person has no education they can not prove theirselves. A saying is that-wisdom is worshiped everywhere but king is not…… education is everything that you need in life it provides a world to be a better place.
Subjects ends with classroom but education ends with life. I like your thinking very much. without education life is possible in thesis modern period of time. human beings are incomplete without education. thank you so much for a dissertation learn about education….. It is thesis 3d animation really awesome that education is very necessary.i read all the comments. Referencing A Dissertation. And they told the importance of education . Man without education is like a complete living being without an eye site.Just imagine. Education is 3d animation like the most important food we will ever need (WATER). I do not think that man would have ever existed up to now in the absent of education (KNOWLEDGE).
Thank alots for related grading your posting. NO EDUCATION NO DEVELOPMENT. Education is very important to because it makes our future bright. Education begin at the knees of 3d animation a mother. Educatiion is a big achievments for people who aim a lot to food paper explore the bachelor thesis 3d animation real essence of life! #128578; as i know, education is just for paper thesis learn and earn. education also defines ur personality.
No doubt, education is the basic foundation of any human being who wants to bachelor thesis 3d animation succeed in life and want to achieve his/her goals. But today’s education system is totally f****d up. Education has become a business and teachers don’t take pride in their profession like before. Education is a must for every living being. In today’s world, education has become a need. Food Research Thesis. It is true that there is no life without education.
Well thanks for providing us a short and sweat essay on such a great topic. Nice Essay I am thankful to 3d animation the writer of this essay . I prepared my assignment with the help of this essay. Truly impressive Thank you sir! Very helpful to me. sure education is the key to human success in life. their is this saying that says he who is not educated can never be forgiven of his sin but he that has education can be forgiving I believe that in term of antebellum essay moral norms and values.thanks. To acheive our Ultimate goal in life education is the most important point. Was a very pleasing and soothing explanation on education. Explained all basic and necessity thing that a educated man has. Really was a very soothing and heart touching essay . Thanks my essay point. I completed my English project because of bachelor thesis 3d animation your essay.
Teaches us the real sense of education ? The points given are wonderful, all is true and was nicely explained or pointed out. Education really is a magnificent thing that shouldn’t be neglected and should be experienced or should have by everyone. Education as stated has not only review related literature one but many more advantages and gifts to an individual and to the society itself, education produces knowledge that when honed can become a sustainable competitive advantage of an individual and thesis 3d animation of a company. Education also not just produces knowledge but also builds confidence for myths essay anyone to put into action what he/she has learned or gained. This essay is bachelor a truly powerful one. thanks to the writer. Very nice and helpful essay.Helped a lot with my assignment.Good job with this essay. A man without education, Life is referencing in apa incomplete.Every life is not possible to achieve his /her goal without education.
Education is never ending process… The story of 3d animation LIS is very inspiring. at 45 I’m doubtful about pursuing my masters degree, coz i thought I AM too old for this, but LIS at 92 pursuing her doctorate. This showed me that education has no age limit. i will make a go of about phones be allowed in school it. thanks for sharing lis story. Eduction is thesis a thing which is very important for our life. When we take risk then we will get education. nice essay … its help me a lot.. Referencing In Apa. thanks this essay show the importance of education not only in our life but also in our society. education is very important for every person . well educated people make good society .. yea really agree with you education is the noblest of all life’s concept even the bible says that you should preserve your education for it is your future and this means that WD have to account for it in the presence of the author/creator. I truly agree with u master ji.
Education is an essential human virtue, a necessity of society, basis of good life and sign of freedom. Bachelor 3d Animation. Education is important for integration of controlling essay separate entities. Let’s take a look at 3d animation, the importance of education in our life: If you are in your academic career, then you might be hearing the words like ‘Education is Must’, ‘There is no Life without Education’ etc., right? So, why all such words come from people around you? What is the grading importance of thesis 3d animation education in our life? Forget about it for a while! First, do you know what education really is? Those who don’t, here is definition of education by Dictionary.com.
“The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, esp. at a school or university: “a new system of public education”. Well, the education is impression not limited to schools or colleges only, nor it is limited to age. The things happening in the practical life also educate us. Anyways, coming to the question in hand, read out the importance of education in our life below. Education Makes Better Citizens. Man is nothing but an animal. Bachelor 3d Animation. It is the education that teaches him many things, teaches the manners, rules and antebellum questions regulations of life etc. All these things result in 3d animation converting man from an animal to well-mannered citizen. Nothing in the life can be achieved if we don’t have belief on ourselves.
Education is what brings self-confidence in us. We get the confidence of doing the things on our own. Our self-confidence then helps us in related literature grading passing all the difficulties that come on way to bachelor 3d animation our aim. Antebellum Essay. Education also makes us better in thesis 3d animation communication with others. An educated person lives a happy life always.
He/she has a bright future that on one can pull from them. Education wakes the hidden talent and skills of any person. Food Research Thesis. This hidden talent and skills give us employment and a completely secure future. It is the education that helps us in achieving new heights in our life. An educated person tries to understand each and every thing on its own rather than blindly following anyone else. This results in spreading awareness everywhere.
An educated person does not only reject the misconceptions him/herself, but also explains the real logic behind any happening, to others. Thus education clears out the darkness with the intense light of knowledge. Educated Persons Help in Progress of Country. People of any particular country can live happily only if the country has all the resources, or simply say, country is rich in thesis every aspect. Educated persons know pretty well that what is wrong and what is myths essay right. They do not need to follow the words of third person. Educated persons are well aware from their country’s rules and laws. They know pretty well about their duties and 3d animation fundamental rights. Essay. They know the value of paying taxes, and bachelor thesis 3d animation thus pay their taxes on time. All these qualities of myths essay educated persons help them play a vital role in the progress of their country. So, this was the list of some benefits of education in our life.
If there is no education, then there is no life. All those of you who are reading in good schools and colleges are indeed very lucky. Thesis 3d Animation. You all have the golden chance to review literature grading own the ornament-like study, and to get yourself counted in the list of educated people. U r absulutely right. Education is the key of success without education human being couldn’t achieve anywhere in your life. Really education is most important for all human beings. If a person has no educated then he can’t prove themselves.
For example :- I am saying some words, this is right up to great extent. Wisdom is worshipped everywhere but king is not. Education is 3d animation more important because it makes our bright future better citizens. Thesis. This always defines our personality. It was very helpful.
It’s very helpful for me. I really like your essay, it has given me inspiration for my year 6 speech thanks.
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5 Examples of How to 3d animation, Write a Good Descriptive Paragraph. A good descriptive paragraph is like a window into another world. Through the use of careful examples or details, an author can conjure a scene that vividly describes a person, place, or thing. The best descriptive writing appeals to all five senses?smell, sight, taste, touch, and hearing?and is found in both fiction and controlling impression essay, nonfiction. In their own way, each of the following writers (three of them students, two of them professional authors) have selected a belonging or a place that holds special meaning to them. Thesis. After identifying that subject in a clear topic sentence, they proceed to referencing, describe it in detail while explaining its personal significance.
On one corner of my dresser sits a smiling toy clown on a tiny unicycle?a gift I received last Christmas from bachelor thesis a close friend. The clown#39;s short yellow hair, made of yarn, covers its ears but is parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in myths essay, black with thin, dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has cherry-red cheeks, nose, and lips, and its broad grin disappears into 3d animation, the wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone nylon costume.
The left side of the referencing a dissertation outfit is light blue, and the right side is red. The two colors merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit. Surrounding its ankles and disguising its long black shoes are big pink bows. The white spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in bachelor thesis 3d animation, the center and expand to the black tire so that the wheel somewhat resembles the inner half of a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together stand about a foot high. Referencing In Apa. As a cherished gift from my good friend Tran, this colorful figure greets me with a smile every time I enter my room. Observe how the writer moves clearly from a description of the head of the clown to the body to the unicycle underneath. Notice also how the concluding sentence helps to tie the paragraph together by emphasizing the personal value of this gift. Bachelor 3d Animation. My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped blond guitar?the first instrument I taught myself how to play. It#39;s nothing fancy, just a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and fingerprinted.
At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of related system, a silver tuning key. The strings are stretched down a long, slim neck, its frets tarnished, the wood worn by thesis, years of fingers pressing chords and picking notes. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that was slightly damaged in review literature grading system, shipping. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the 3d animation pick guard fell off years ago. No, it#39;s not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will always treasure it.
Notice how the writer below uses a topic sentence to open his paragraph, then uses the following sentences to add specific details. A Dissertation In Apa. The author creates an image for the mind#39;s eye to travel across by describing the thesis parts of the antebellum questions guitar in a logical fashion, from the strings on 3d animation the head to the worn wood on the body. Gregory is my beautiful gray Persian cat. He walks with pride and grace, performing a dance of disdain as he slowly lifts and lowers each paw with the delicacy of a ballet dancer. Myths Essay. His pride, however, does not extend to 3d animation, his appearance, for he spends most of his time indoors watching television and growing fat. He enjoys TV commercials, especially those for impression Meow Mix and 9 Lives. His familiarity with cat food commercials has led him to reject generic brands of bachelor 3d animation, cat food in favor of only the most expensive brands. Gregory is as finicky about a dissertation in apa, visitors as he is about what he eats, befriending some and thesis 3d animation, repelling others. He may snuggle up against your ankle, begging to be petted, or he may imitate a skunk and stain your favorite trousers. Phones Should Be Allowed In School. Gregory does not do this to establish his territory, as many cat experts think, but to humiliate me because he is jealous of bachelor thesis, my friends. After my guests have fled, I look at the old fleabag snoozing and smiling to himself in front of the television set, and I have to forgive him for his obnoxious, but endearing, habits.
The writer here focuses less on referencing in apa the physical appearance of bachelor, her pet than on the cat#39;s habits and actions. Personification is an controlling essay effective literary device for giving lifelike detail to an inanimate object or an thesis 3d animation animal, and review literature, Carter uses it to great effect. Her choice of words conveys her clear affection for the cat, something to which many readers can relate. Once in a long while, four times so far for 3d animation me, my mother brings out the metal tube that holds her medical diploma. On the tube are gold circles crossed with seven red lines each? #34;joy#34; ideographs in abstract. There are also little flowers that look like gears for a gold machine. According to myths essay, the scraps of thesis 3d animation, labels with Chinese and American addresses, stamps, and food paper, postmarks, the family airmailed the can from bachelor thesis Hong Kong in 1950.
It got crushed in the middle, and whoever tried to peel the labels off stopped because the controlling impression essay red and gold paint came off too, leaving silver scratches that rust. Somebody tried to pry the end off before discovering that the tube falls apart. Thesis 3d Animation. When I open it, the smell of China flies out, a thousand-year-old bat flying heavy-headed out of the Chinese caverns where bats are as white as dust, a smell that comes from long ago, far back in the brain. This paragraph opens the third chapter of Maxine Hong Kingston#39;s #34;The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts,#34; a lyrical account of a Chinese-American girl growing up in California. Notice how Kingston integrates informative and descriptive details in this account of #34;the metal tube#34; that holds her mother#39;s diploma from medical school. Inside District School #7, Niagara County, New York. Inside, the school smelled smartly of varnish and wood smoke from the potbellied stove. On gloomy days, not unknown in upstate New York in this region south of Lake Ontario and east of Lake Erie, the windows emitted a vague, gauzy light, not much reinforced by ceiling lights. We squinted at the blackboard, that seemed far away since it was on a small platform, where Mrs.
Dietz#39;s desk was also positioned, at the front, left of the room. We sat in referencing a dissertation, rows of seats, smallest at the front, largest at the rear, attached at their bases by metal runners, like a toboggan; the wood of these desks seemed beautiful to me, smooth and of the red-burnished hue of horse chestnuts. Bachelor Thesis. The floor was bare wooden planks. An American flag hung limply at the far left of the essay about cell phones should blackboard and above the blackboard, running across the front of the room, designed to draw our eyes to it avidly, worshipfully, were paper squares showing that beautifully shaped script known as Parker Penmanship. In this paragraph (originally published in Washington Post Book World and reprinted in ?#34;Faith of a Writer: Life, Craft, Art,#34; Joyce Carol Oates affectionately describes the #34;single-room schoolhouse#34; she attended from first through fifth grades.
Notice how she appeals to our sense of smell before moving on bachelor to describe the layout and contents of the room.
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Describe A Busy Market Place Essays and Research Papers. explanation below of how you make t his project: Topic 1 : Introducing Yourself You must introduce yourself by thesis 3d animation, mentioning the following things in food research paper your . video; Introduce Your Name/Surname; describe Your Education Background; describe Your Competency; Describe Your Prospective Career; Describe Your Hobby, Your family, things you are doing and etc. You are allowed to add more information in bachelor thesis 3d animation order to make your vide o more interesting. Please go to these links to get better idea about how. Malay language 958 Words | 6 Pages. Stillness of the dawn was displaced by the scheduled game of the morning gusts.
Pages of newsletters a crucified against referencing a dissertation in apa, a brick- wall using four large black . nails, expanded and compressed like a heart, displaying ' Market Place ’. Looking around all that could be seen was a crowd of people pushing, shoving and shouting. People rushed by, Gathering up items as fast as they could, People often travelled in groups; parents and children or Other family members and even friends; They were the ones causing. Fish market , Market , Marketplace 2253 Words | 6 Pages. ? The Market Place Summary The Puritan women waiting outside the . prison self-righteously and viciously discuss Hester Prynne and her sin. Hester, proud and beautiful, emerges from the prison. She wears an elaborately embroidered scarlet letter A — standing for adultery — on her breast, and bachelor 3d animation, she carries a three-month-old infant in her arms. Controlling Essay? Hester is led through the unsympathetic crowd to bachelor 3d animation the scaffold of the pillory. Standing alone on. Anne Hutchinson , Badge of review related shame , Hester Prynne 988 Words | 3 Pages. A Busy Place , Now Deserted That year, 2003, although Beijing was in bachelor thesis its late spring, it was a sunny day, bright blue skies. The . window was still opened, and the wind filled my bedroom.
The curtains fluttered and impression, flapped. I set myself comfortably in the bed with cushion behind my head, and thesis 3d animation, watched the TV shows. I heard the footsteps in the hall, and the key turning in the lock before the antebellum essay questions door was opened. Bachelor 3d Animation? It was my roommate, Jubb. Did you see what the paper said this morning? She asked while threw. Infectious disease , Influenza , Pandemic 822 Words | 3 Pages. Pike Place Market is a public market overlooking the essay about cell be allowed Elliott Bay waterfront in Seattle, Washington, United States. . The Market opened August 17, 1907, and is one of the thesis oldest continuously operated public farmers' markets in the United States. It is a place of myths essay business for many small farmers, craftspeople and merchants. Named after the central street, Pike Place runs northwest from Pike Street to bachelor thesis 3d animation Virginia Street, and remains one of myths essay Seattle's most popular tourist destinations.
The Market is built. Farmers' market , Market , Pike Place Fish Market 1673 Words | 5 Pages. ?It’s a hard place to describe in words. To make sense of the chaos, the bachelor thesis 3d animation people, the beauty, and the colour. To comprehend its . assault on the senses – the spicy curry, the steaming chai, the rich spices, the perpetual crowds and the unending honks from vehicles weaving through the impossible traffic. Essay? After visiting India, National Geographic’s Keith Bellows once said, “It was as if all my life I had been seeing the world in black and white and, when brought face-to-face with India, experienced everything. Deaf culture , Deafblindness , Deafness 780 Words | 5 Pages. the nearest fish stall. I can't cope with this whatever convinced me to go to the Market on bachelor thesis 3d animation a mid Saturday afternoon.
I have to get out of here . or I might just possibly explode in a rage of anger A market place is a very busy place where people go to myths essay buy articles of their needs. Thesis? It is a centre of attraction for both buyers and sellers. In Apa? There is no other place in thesis the area having so much brisk business as the market . Review Grading? I always find a big crowd there. There are several shops, all decorated beautifully. Automobile , Debut albums , Existential quantification 604 Words | 2 Pages. Government Intervention in the Market Place. GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN THE MARKET PLACE ECONOMICS 101 ESSAY 2 28TH APRIL 2006 ABSTRACT The government may choose . to set prices different to thesis 3d animation those set by literature system, the markets . Prices are not allowed to drop below a certain minimum. For example, in Agriculture, government may choose to subsidies farmers, set production quotas or offer price supports. Government may decide to set price ceilings or price floors. The government may also choose to increase or decrease taxes on certain commodities.
Economic policy , Government , Inflation 1875 Words | 6 Pages. Describe The Market Segment Describe the thesis 3d animation market segment: Mercedes sells a product for which . consumers are willing to fast food paper thesis pay a premium price. This high price means that Mercedes sells almost exclusively to a small group of thesis 3d animation very high-income consumers. Describe the product positioning for this specific brand: Mercedes Benz holds a strong position and brand due to perceptions of superior engineering, safety, and referencing a dissertation, customer satisfaction. 3d Animation? Mercedes Benz has always been known for its quality. Aircraft , Airline , Flag carrier 1212 Words | 4 Pages.
October 5, 2014 ABSTRACT E-Commerce stands for electronic commerce and E-Commerce is the buying and myths essay, selling of products over an . electronic network. Bachelor Thesis? The main purpose of E-Commerce helps consumer’s priority in developing their market through online. This paper mainly aims in analyzing the role of myths essay E-Commerce in modern business and thesis 3d animation, social environments, international barriers to E-commerce and their roles in success of E-Commerce. Review System? Keywords: E-Commerce, modern business, social. Amazon.com , Electronic commerce , Facebook 1162 Words | 7 Pages. The Grupo Modelo Place in the World Market. The Grupo Modelo Place in the World Market The beer industry currently accounts for 52% of all alcohol sales in the U.S. . according to beerprofits.com. At the bachelor 3d animation same time, Beer is 85% of all of the consumption of beer, wine, and liquor in the U.S. Since 1983, the beer consumption has risen by 17.2% from related 186 million barrels to 218 millions barrels. The expected growth projects that the thesis industry will be up to 220 million barrels by 2011. Fast Food Thesis? In previous years, beer’s core segmentation was age group.
Beer , Beer and breweries in bachelor thesis 3d animation Mexico , Beer in Mexico 1308 Words | 4 Pages. Describe Types of Market Research. (P1) Introduction: a lot of business uses market research, to collect information to help them provided a suitable and a sustainable marketing . product or service. To attract customers interest in food research order to bachelor thesis make their business more success able. Primary research: this is information which is collected from scratch, as company gather primary research based on fast paper their research feedback. They get from the date which company team members produces, this is a primary effort because new fresh data which has been. Marketing , Original research , Primary research 964 Words | 3 Pages. ?A market place is the place spread out in a specific area, where a variety of goods of daily requirements are . available for purchase by customers.
There are an umpteen number of bachelor 3d animation markets all they catering to the daily requirements of the essay cell in school public, and they are placed close to thesis 3d animation residential areas for essay the convenience of the bachelor 3d animation customers. Related Grading System? I had heard a lot about a market called Chandni Chowk in Old Delhi but had never seen it. Thesis? Once this year, in the month of October, on the occasion of my sister's marriage. Chandni Chowk , Delhi , History of Delhi 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Pike Place Market and Work Environment. Jane found herself at the infamous Pike Place Fish Market for controlling impression essay lunch where she met Lonnie, a happy-go-lucky fishmonger, who gives . her just the advice she needs about bachelor thesis, her situation with First Guarantee. Myths Essay? Lonnie explained to her that Pike Place used to be exactly like First Guarantee, with the lack of motivation and the feeling that their work was boring, monotonous every single day. So, how were the fishermen at Pike Place able to turn their boring fish market into one of the bachelor 3d animation most famous in the world. 1980s music groups , 1990s music groups , Customer service 1181 Words | 3 Pages. Busy Busy Busy In the world of college, there is always something to myths essay be done as a student.
If it is homework, . class, family, friends, or just living life, all college students have something going to do. Bachelor? College students are stressed at some point in time and every college student can make college less stressful if they plan, set goals, and find something that they like about myths essay, college. Dr. Drew (2007) put it in a good way when he said “Without stress, there would be no life”. Is that true? Would.
Education , Getting Things Done , Homework 1138 Words | 3 Pages. busy super market descriptive essay. ?A busy supermarket You could almost see the heat blasting out the glass doors through the face of the man who walked into the store. A . Bachelor 3d Animation? prominent almost motionless man looking like a guard,stood outside the store seeking for in apa bother. In the car park was an unattended trolley moving forward ever so slightly due to the breezy weather. Bachelor 3d Animation? A young woman with a baby who was yelling like there was no tomorrow seemed to look extremely distressed and although her age, few wrinkles seemed to should be allowed appear on her. Automobile , Boy , Cash 738 Words | 3 Pages. ?1 Describe the thesis McVitie’s product range. Outline the range of their different products( See website for details of food research paper their current products) . McVite’s have a great product range which they sell different type and different taste of products and they are : Jaffa Cakes Digestives Medley Hobnobs Mcvities Breakfast biscuits Rich tea These products are mainly sweet product and bachelor, its mainly on teenager and questions, other people. 2 Describe the specific product features of bachelor thesis 4 different Mc Vitae’s products (type. Biscuit , Digestive biscuit , Marketing 695 Words | 3 Pages.
Topic: Financial Markets A financial market is a market in which people and entities can trade financial . securities, commodities, and other fungible items of value at low transaction costs and at prices that reflect supply and myths essay, demand. Securities include stocks and bonds, and commodities include precious metals or agricultural goods. There are both general markets (where many commodities are traded) and specialized markets (where only one commodity is traded). Markets work by placing many interested. Economics , Finance , Financial market 742 Words | 3 Pages. Maximizing Profits in Market Structures. Assignment: Maximizing Profits in Market Structures 1 What are the characteristics of each market structure? A . competitive market is bachelor thesis, many sellers that sell similar products with very little control over the market selling price. An example of competitive market structure is a gasoline station. There can be many gasoline stations in a certain mile radius, the more gasoline stations there are in a small area the myths essay higher the competitive the market . Monopolies: Monopolies are a group.
Competition , Economics , Filling station 1272 Words | 5 Pages. Subway: Marketing and Busy Ants Segment. how Subway positions its product in the market . Market Segmentation Individuals in the market have different . behaviours and needs. Therefore, to bachelor thesis serve them, there is a need for segmentation (Martin, 2011). Market segmentation is viewing the heterogeneous market as a few smaller homogeneous market to have a much precise knowledge on in apa consumers wants to ensure firm’s offering will be able to match the customer’s requirement (Oestreicher, 2011). Subway’s market segment profiles are as of the follow: Segmentation. Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Hamburger 1243 Words | 5 Pages. The Metaphor of Red and Blue Oceans Describes the bachelor thesis 3d animation Market Universe.
The metaphor of red and blue oceans describes the market universe. Fast Food? Red Oceans are all the industries in existence today—the . known market space. Thesis 3d Animation? In the review related grading system red oceans, industry boundaries are defined and accepted, and the competitive rules of the game are known. Here companies try to outperform their rivals to grab a greater share of product or service demand. As the market space gets crowded, prospects for profits and growth are reduced.
Products become commodities or niche, and cutthroat competition. Blue Ocean Strategy , Competition , Economics 916 Words | 3 Pages. Vegetable markets in India are a messy place . The ones that retail the produce are less dirty. The wholesalers leave a lot to be . desired. It was my first visit to thesis 3d animation the Alandur wholesale market and it brought back memories of a similar shopping establishment of antebellum essay my childhood called ‘Monda market ’ located far away in 3d animation the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad in another state. My wife had asked me if I could help with the weekly purchase and I agreed. The entry to the Alandur market is essay about cell, through a. Chandni Chowk , Market , Market square 2596 Words | 6 Pages.
Market Structures Objectives: To define market and market structures To describe the differences . of the different market structures Market We usually think of a market as a place where some sort of exchange occurs; however, a market is bachelor, not really a place at all. A market is the process of essay cell be allowed exchanging goods and services between buyers and sellers. Ruffin Gregory (1997) defines a market as an established management that brings buyers and sellers together to exchange particular goods and. Competition , Economics , Imperfect competition 678 Words | 3 Pages. P1- Describe how marketing techniques are used to market products in two organisations. Describe how marketing techniques are used to bachelor thesis market products in two organisations In this task I will describe . how marketing techniques are used to market products in two different organisations in review literature grading this case NHS and Nike. NHS The NHS was found by Aneurin Bevan on the 5th of July 1948 when he opened the Park hospital in Manchester; his ambition was to break a high standard of healthcare to everyone.
This gave the opportunity for 3d animation doctors, nurses etc. to referencing be together and provide a service which. Athletic shoe , Business , Customer service 1263 Words | 4 Pages. The Roman Of A Busy Broker Analysis. ?The Romance of a Busy Broker by O. Henry Short story Analysis produced by the student Sorocian Liudmila gr.LAE16M The story under analysis was . written by the american writer O.Henry, whose real name was William Sydney Porter. 3d Animation? His short stories are known for their wit, wordplay, warm characterization and clever twist endings. Essay About Phones Should Be Allowed? O.Henry wrote about bachelor thesis, ordinary people: clerks, policemen or waitresses, many of his stories take place in about phones should New York. The title of the bachelor story is suggestive, because we can. Antagonist , Character , Fiction 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Internal and referencing, External Factors: Pike Market Place.
In 1971, it opened its first store in SeattleA?a‚¬a„?s Pike Market Place . A?a‚¬A“The company purchases and roast high-quality . whole bean coffees and sells them along with rich-brewed, Italian style espresso beverages, a variety of pastries and coffee related accessories and equipment A?a‚¬a€? primary through the thesis retails stores.A?a‚¬A? (http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/overview.asp). This store was originally named Starbucks Coffee, Tea, and Spices, which later became famous for starting a corporation. Business , Business ethics , Coffee 1392 Words | 4 Pages. ?There are many interesting places in the world to visit. Many places are interesting because of referencing in apa their popularity, some are . interesting because of the bachelor climate and some are interesting because they are always on the news. Chicago, St Petersburg and Armenia are three places in the world that have an interesting history. Chicago is part of Illinois which is one of states of the U.S..
Chicago is not English word. It’s the essay questions word form one of languages used by Indians. It means the strong smell. This. Armenia , Hermitage Museum , Moscow 834 Words | 3 Pages. ?A free market is a market structure which is not controlled by a designated authority. A free market contrasts . with a controlled market or regulated market , in which government policy intervenes in bachelor the setting of prices.
Is mainly a theoretical concept as every country, even capitalist ones, places some restrictions on essay the ownership and exchange of commodities. In financial markets , free market stocks are securities that are widely traded and whose prices are not affected by availability. In simple. Economics , Externality , Free market 830 Words | 3 Pages. N. Bleecker John Bush Peter AnspachCharles McEvers, Jr.
David Reedy Robinson amp; Hartshorne This agreement created a closed club in which members agreed . to trade only with each other and to thesis abide by a 0.25% commission rate. Controlling Impression Essay? (2) Dealings took place outside the first year and then the 3d animation members moved into the Tontine Coffee House, but would still trade outside unless the weather was really bad. (2) “Historically the New York Stock Exchange had 1,366 exchange members.” (4) Commission brokers are. American Stock Exchange , London Stock Exchange , NASDAQ 1268 Words | 2 Pages. P1: Describe How Marketing Techniques Are Used to Market Products in Two Organisations. P1: Describe how marketing techniques are used to market products in two organisations Tesco: Growth Strategy Tesco has a well . established and reliable strategy for growth, which has allowed them to strengthen their business and drive expansion into related literature grading new markets . The underlying principle for the strategy is to expand the range of business to allow them to deliver strong sustainable long-term growth by following the customers into bachelor thesis 3d animation large expanding markets such as financial services, non-food and. Business , Constraint , Management 1763 Words | 5 Pages. Weekend Market Descriptive Essay Exercise Answers. attention getter explain why this place is literature grading system, important/ interesting Paragraph 2 Describe the thesis 3d animation location and/or the parts of this . System? place Paragraph 3 Describe the bachelor thesis 3d animation activities what happens here Paragraph 4 Describe the sensory details: sights, smells, tastes, sounds etc. Impression Essay? Conclusion Summarize why this place is important or why you like it The Weekend Market eslflow.com Many tourists I have met have told me that one place they have to bachelor 3d animation go is the weekend market . This market is huge and has everything from. Bus stop , Coconut , Coconut water 1082 Words | 2 Pages. Why Government Intervention Is Needed in the Market Place. blog: AS Micro | AS Macro | A2 Micro | AS Macro AS Market FailureGovernment Intervention in the Market | | In a free . market economic system, scarce resources are allocated through the controlling essay price mechanismwhere the bachelor preferences and spending decisions of consumers and cell, the supply decisions of thesis 3d animation businesses come together to determine equilibrium prices.
The free market works through price signals. When demand is high, the potential profit from supplying to a market rises, leading to an expansion in supply (output). Capitalism , Economics , Externality 1379 Words | 4 Pages. reach different markets or to promote your products to different locations or people one has to referencing in apa use a method called market . segmentation. Market segmentation describes the division of a market into bachelor thesis 3d animation homogenous groups which will respond differently to promotions, communications, advertising and other marketing mix variable (Cumming). Market segmentation is extremely important for companies around the world. If a company doesn't research the area in which they are going to market or they put a product. Demographics , Market , Market segmentation 1889 Words | 6 Pages. one of the challenges is how to create value of product in referencing order to bachelor support the essay unique selling proposition.
Before determining the perceived value in thesis 3d animation . products, we need to know what product (Offer) is. Product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption to satisfy needs and wants. There are three levels of product - core product, actual product and augmented product. In the following article, an about cell phones should in school, IKEA TROMSO Loft bed frame with desk top and Monash Sport. Bed , Core product , IKEA 763 Words | 3 Pages. Mne Challenges in Emerging Markets. International business and bachelor thesis, global innovation Individual report 1. Please discuss MNEs challenges in emerging markets ? How can MNEs solve . these? First of all, I would like to mention that It would be hard to myths essay describe challenges in emerging markets of the whole world, because question either can be roughly generalized or otherwise requires deep and wide research which is bachelor, not the essay phones should in school case right now.
That’s why in my discussion I would like to stop on bachelor thesis one country – Russia. The Russian economy is. BRIC , Business , Business ethics 1375 Words | 4 Pages. Describe The Structure And Organisation Of The Retail Secto1. ? Describe the structure and food research thesis, organisation of the retail sector Retailers provide a service to customers at bachelor thesis, a profit. They are able to essay cell phones should in school do this . since the aspects of 3d animation retailing – operating from an appropriate location, offering attractive product variety, ensuring enough stock is myths essay, available to meet demand – add value to the products bought from bachelor thesis suppliers and eventually sold to customers. Retailers cut their bulk deliveries from suppliers so individual customers can buy the quantity they require – very. Convenience store , Online shopping , Product 887 Words | 3 Pages. Product overview Target Market * Market Segmentation * Consumer Profile Market analysis * . Market Overview * Analysis of macro environment * Competition analysis * SWOT analysis Product Capability Positioning Statement Objective to essay be achieved * Financial objective * Marketing objective Market Plan Implementation Market plan Control Part 1: Market and Consumer Analysis Trend in the market : The current trend in the Canadian market for goods and services. Big-box store , Cosmetics , Hypermarket 1305 Words | 4 Pages.
Defining a Market Driven Company November 7, 2007 by bachelor 3d animation, Josh · Leave a Comment Filed under: Financial, MBA This isn’t a normal blog post but . rather me sharing a paper I recently wrote to about phones in school describe to a superior what it means to bachelor thesis 3d animation be a ‘ Market Driven’ company. It is a long read but I think the information is applicable to many people regardless of title or position in a company. Essay? Defining a Market Driven Company: Describing Characteristics of Market Driven Companies for Your Superiors Colgate has. Company , Consultative selling , Customer 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Differentiating Between Market Structure.
Differentiating Between Market Structures Lydia Wise, Linda Shaw, and Isis Harvin ECO/212 March 2, 2011 Hib Shelton Differentiating . Between Market Structures When dealing with economics, the elements varies tremendously. The most important elements are what make the bachelor thesis 3d animation economy exist. Goods, services, and resources are all elements that make up the economy. This week’s paper will discuss the essay phones should in school likes and differences between goods, resources, and monopolies. Along with comparing and contrasting. Consumer finance , Economic equilibrium , Economics 1129 Words | 4 Pages. can be applied to one industry of bachelor thesis 3d animation your choice. Related Literature System? Market segmentation is thesis, a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target . market into subsets of consumers who have common needs, and then be designed and implemented to target these specific customer segments, addressing needs or desires that are believed to myths essay be common in this segment, using media that is used by the market segment. Today’s generation there are various products in the market . Today I am going to bachelor discuss one of them is RADOX.
Bathing , Developmental biology , Market segmentation 1727 Words | 7 Pages. McDonalds Case study Table of Contents Current Market Situation: 3 Strengths: 3 Weaknesses: 3 Opportunities: 3 Threats: 4 . Market Segment: 4 Issue Analysis: 4 Recommended Alternatives: 5 Product: 5 Place : 5 Price: 5 Promotion: 6 Selection of Best Alternatives: 6 Product: 6 Place : 6 Price: 6 Promotion: 7 References: 8 Current Market Situation: Strengths: * Good Product adaption. (1) * More than 31000 restaurants covered on all continents. (2) . Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Food 575 Words | 4 Pages. ?Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper in which you describe the elements of the marketing mix: product, place , price, and a dissertation in apa, . 3d Animation? promotion. Include the following: 1. Select an organization with which you are familiar and describe how each one of the myths essay four elements of the marketing mix affects the development of the organization’s marketing strategy and tactics. Bachelor Thesis? 2. Essay About Should? Describe how each element is implemented. 3. Identify your selected organization and thesis, the industry in antebellum essay questions which it exists. General Motors.
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As my Uncle Jim . used to say, If you throw enough dirt on the wall some of it is going to stick, ain't it? So why don't companies just throw a bunch of good products at paper, the people and just see who buys what, if anything at all? That might have worked along time ago, but now, the answer in short, is competition. Today, there are to bachelor 3d animation types of companies, those that are profitable and those. Banana Republic , Clothing , Gap 1458 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction 2.1 Definition of Market Study Market study is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting . information about the market , about the products or services offered for sale on essay about cell should the market , and about the thesis 3d animation past, present and potential customers for your products or services, research into the characteristics, spending habits, location and target market needs of business, industry as a whole, and competitors. Impression? Based on entreprenuer.com, market study must have accurate and thorough. Competitor analysis , Market research , Marketing 1911 Words | 7 Pages. Place Marketing The concept of bachelor place branding has emerged in recent years as a powerful instrument and it is becoming more . popular all over the world. Place branding is important today because in the global marketplace of grading system instant communication and 3d animation, growing democracy, the opinions of the controlling impression essay people count as much as the opinions of the bachelor powers in review literature grading charge.
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How much is the HoReCa industry in Poland worth. Catering , Eating , Food 537 Words | 3 Pages. Techniques Are Used to Market Products. Marketing – Unit 3 Task 1 Describe how marketing techniques are used to market products in these 2 organizations. A . definition of marketing : The management process through which services move from concept to the customer. It includes the four elements called the 4 P's of marketing: 1. Product - identification, selection and development. 2. Price - determination of its price. 3. Antebellum Questions? Place - selection of a distribution channel to reach the bachelor thesis 3d animation customer. 4. Promotion - development and implementation of.
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Essay on Road Transport System of India. In this essay we will discuss about Road Transport System of India. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Road Transport System in India 2. Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy 3. Scenario 4. Problems 5. Suggestions for Improvement. Essay on Road Transport System in thesis, India Essay on the Importance of myths essay, Road Transport System in Indian Economy Essay on the Scenario of Road Transport System in India Essay on the Problems of Road Transport System in bachelor, India Essay on the Suggestions for Improvement of Road Transport System in India. Essay # 1. Introduction to Road Transport System in India : Road transport is the second important mode of transport in India. It covers every corner of the country which the railway transport even could not cover. Road transport provides the referencing basic infrastructural facilities to both the agricultural and industrial sector of the bachelor 3d animation country.
Moreover, construction and about should be allowed in school, maintenance of roads can generate huge employment opportunities as it is twice as labour intensive as agriculture or housing. Indian roads carry 85 per cent of the passengers and 70 per cent of the freight traffic of the country. The highways, make up only 2 per cent of the bachelor thesis 3d animation road network by length, but carry 40 per cent of this traffic. Indian roads are classified broadly into following four categories: National Highways are considered as main arterial routes as it connects big cities, industrial centres, major ports and different states of the country. Total length of National Highways is nearly 79.1 thousand kms in 2012-13 and caters to about 45 per research thesis, cent of the total road transport demand. The construction and maintenance of national highways of the 3d animation country are the responsibility of the central government. State highways are the important roads which are connecting district headquarter and important towns and fast food thesis, cities with the capital and National Highways. Thesis? Construction and the maintenance of state highways are the essay about phones be allowed responsibility of the State Government. Total length of State Highways in 2012-13 was 168.3 thousand kms. District roads connect production centres and markets.
It also connects main roads to the interior places of 3d animation, each and every district. Major portion of this road is unmetalled and are, therefore, un-motor able during the rainy season. Total length of major district roads was 470.0 thousand km in 2004-05. Village roads of India are connecting villages with one another and also connect the village roads with the nearest district roads, highway, railway stations or river ghat. Village roads may be broadly of two types—Classified and Unclassified. Unclassified Village roads are normally non-metalled roads. Total length of rural roads was 2,650.0 thousand km in 2004-05. In India, total length of roads has increased from 4 lakh kms in 1950-51 to nearly 49.49 lakh kms in 2012-13 out of which 27.42 lakh kms is surfaced and the rest 22.07 lakhs kms is un-surfaced. This shows that annual growth rate of this increase in road length was 4.5 per cent.
National Highways which have a total length of nearly 66,800 kms constitute only 1.6 per cent of the controlling essay total road system of the country. About 64 per bachelor, cent of the villages of the country have a rural road network and the rest 36 per cent have no road connections. Moreover, over fast research paper thesis 65 per cent of our villages do not have an all weather roads. At present, India has a total road network covering 4.69 million kilometers which makes it one of the thesis largest road networks in the world. The country’s road network consists of National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads, Other District Roads and Village Roads. The road network comprises 79,100 km of National Highways, 1,68,300 km. of State Highways 4,70,000 km of Major District Roads and about 26,50,000 km of other District and Rural Roads. Out of the total length of National Highways, about 24 per cent is single lane / intermediate lane, about 51 per cent is standard 2- lane and balance 25 per cent is 4-lane width or more. Though National Highways account for only 2 per cent of the total length of roads, they account for about 40 per cent of the total traffic. It is estimated that road traffic in essay, India accounts for 80 per bachelor 3d animation, cent of passenger traffic and 60 per cent of goods traffic in the country. In future, 87 per cent of the passenger traffic and essay, 65 per thesis 3d animation, cent of the goods traffic is expected to controlling essay be met through road transport system.
In our Five Year Plans, a good amount of fund was allocated for the development of roads. 3d Animation? During the first three plans and the Annual Plans, nearly Rs 1,104 crore was spent on a dissertation in apa the heads of thesis 3d animation, road development. Again the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Plan had allocated funds worth Rs 862 crore, Rs 1,348 crore, Rs 3,439 crore and Rs 5,200 crore respectively for the development of roads in research paper thesis, the country. Road construction is a capital intensive project. Current estimate suggest that the cost of a four-lane highway works out to roughly Rs 4.5 crore per kilometer and the cost of a protected access, six-lane expressway works out to roughly Rs 8.5 crore per 3d animation, kilometer. Under the present situation, the experiences with tolling suggest that there is limited scope for essay about obtaining user charges through tolls.
A key innovation in recent years was the creation of a major new source of funding for national, state and rural roads: the Central Road Fund (CRF) created under the bachelor thesis 3d animation Central Road Fund Act, 2000. Antebellum? This was a major milestone in obtaining user charges to fund road construction. The following are the details of the bachelor Central Road Fund: 1. Additional excise duty of Re. 1 per litre on petrol levied since September 2, 1998 and Re. 1 per litre on high speed diesel since March 1999 accrue to the Central Road Fund (CRF).
An amount of Rs 6,030 crore is collected during 2002-03 under the CRF. Recently, the cess is raised to Rs 2.00 per litre on the sale of petrol and diesel. 2. The allocation of cess among various categories is made in the following manner: (a) 50 per cent of cess on HSD for development of rural roads: (b) Out of the remaining 50 per cent of HSD cess plus 100 per cent of petrol cess—57.5 per cent will be utilised for development and maintenance of national highways; 12.5 per questions, cent will be utilised for development and maintenance of road bridges, under/over railway lines/safety work for unmanned railway crossing; and the remaining 30 per bachelor 3d animation, cent for the development and maintenance of state roads other than rural roads. This CRF is the financial foundation of the important project, the National Highway Development Project (NHDP). Thus, the National Highways are considered as prime arterial route.
Total length of National Highways in referencing a dissertation, India as on March 2005 was 66,800 kilometers. The National Highways Authority of bachelor thesis, India which was constituted under the National Highway Authority of India Act, 1988 was made operational in February, 1995. Initially, it was entrusted with the task of implementing five externally aided National Highways (NH) improvement projects. Subsequently, it was mandated to implement the National Highways Development Project (NHDP) comprising 4/6 laning of 14,279 km of literature system, national highways having two components, i.e., (i) The Golden Quadrilateral connecting four metropolitan cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata (5,846 km.), (ii) North-South and East-West corridors (7,300 km) connecting Srinagar to Kanyakumari and bachelor thesis, Silchar to Saurashtra respectively and Salem to Cochin. (iii) Port Connectivity and other projects (1,157 kms) and. (iv) NHDP Phase-III-A: four laning of 4,035 km of BOT in the year 2005 approved at an estimated cost of Rs 22,207 crore.
The Government has also taken action for preparation of DPRs for the balance length of 7,028 kms under Phase III B. (v) Government has approved six-laning of 6,500 kms under NHDP Phase-V at a cost of Rs 41,210 crore; and. (vi) Government approved the construction of 1,000 kms of expressways at a cost of Rs 16,680 crore under NHDP-Phase VI. A task force headed by antebellum essay questions, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission is monitoring the progress. NHDP is estimated to thesis 3d animation cost Rs 87,000 crore. The Golden Quadrilateral part is completed by 2006 and North-South and East-West corridor by 2016. Essay # 2. Importance of Road Transport System in Indian Economy: Road transport system in India is having a special importance in the process of economic development of the country. Let us now discuss these importance:
1. Road Transport can open up backward and interior remote areas of the country. In India a huge area still remains totally unconnected either through railways or water transport. Under such circumstances road transport can easily open up those remote areas where railways cannot penetrate. 2. Road transport in India is contributing significantly towards the growth of related, gross domestic product of the country. But in this regard, road transport in India still remains much backward. 3. In comparison to railways, road transport is more convenient, quicker and more flexible. For short distance travel and thesis 3d animation, traffic, motor transport is the system ideal mode of transport as it can collect and bachelor thesis, drop passenger and goods at any place.
Motor transport can also render door to door service which railway cannot provide. 4. Road transport is complementary to railway and other modes of transport. It is only through feeder roads railways can collect its passengers and goods easily. Railways cannot connect villages of the country but through feeder roads, road transport can easily connect railway stations with distant villages. 5. Should Be Allowed In School? Road transport is very much helpful to agricultural sector of the country as it provides easy and quick transportation facilities for the marketing of bachelor 3d animation, agricultural produce especially the perishable products like vegetables, fruits etc. It is the road transport system which helps the farmers to bring inputs like seeds, fertilizers etc. to the agricultural field along with providing a steady and ready market for their produce. 6. Impression Essay? Road transport is very important for the industrial development of the country. Establishments of modern and giant industries have become possible due to the construction of well developed network of roads in the country. 7. Road transport system is generating huge number of employment in the country. Construction of roads is creating a huge scope for employment as it can create a good number of bachelor 3d animation, man-days of work to controlling essay ordinary workers.
8. Road transport is bachelor, very important with reference to defence of the country. A sound defence system can only be maintained with the well developed network of roads throughout the country. Construction of myths essay, roads in inaccessible areas enables the defence force of the country to bachelor 3d animation take control of such areas. Regarding the importance of roads, the Seventh Plan document has rightly observed, “Since the country’s economy is largely agrarian in character and the settlement pattern is rural-oriented, roads constitute a critical element of the transportation infrastructure. Road construction and related, maintenance generate sizeable employment opportunities, a factor that has assumed considerable importance with demographic expansion and thesis 3d animation, growth of the labour force. Better roads also achieve fuel economy and improve the overall productivity of the road transport sector. Road development will thus continue to play an referencing a dissertation in apa important role in the Seventh Plan.” Essay # 3. Bachelor? Scenario of Road Transport System in India : In India, road transport system is rendering a valuable service to the general people in various directions of their life. Road transport in India may be classified as traditional and mechanised transport. Traditional transport includes non-mechanised transport like bullock carts, thelas, rickshaws etc.
About 25 per cent of India’s trade is carried through this traditional mode of transport which directly employed nearly 2 crores of people. Further, mechanised road transport includes all those transport facilities carried through motor vehicles whose numbers are increasing at a very fast rate. Total number of vehicles on road increased from 0.3 million in 1950-51 to 89.61 million in essay, 2005-2006. Bachelor Thesis 3d Animation? Total number of buses has gone up from 34,000 to 9,92,000 and fast food research paper, total number of thesis, trucks has increased from 82,000 to 44,36,000 during the impression same above mentioned period. Thus the annual rate of growth of this transport was 5.4 per cent. At present, there are 66 State Road Transport Undertakings which have a total fleet of over bachelor 1.2 lakh buses on March, 1993 carrying 6.8 crore passengers daily.
Moreover, to myths essay develop inter-state routes, a Transport Development Council and Inter-State Transport Commission were established. Bachelor? National permit scheme was also introduced for a smooth flow of myths essay, inter-State routes. Essay # 4. Problems of Road Transport System in India: Road transport system in India is suffering from numerous problem, as mentioned below: The road transport system in India is thesis, also suffering from unfavorable road conditions. Existing roads in India are not at referencing a dissertation all conducive to 3d animation operate a smooth and efficient road transport system. Moreover, a large number of rural areas do not have any road linkage. In the absence of all weather roads, road transport system are facing a setback condition particularly during monsoons. Road transport system in India is in the hands of controlling impression, private sector as nearly 48,000 operators are running their vehicles for this purpose.
Under such a situation it becomes very difficult to regulate and bachelor thesis 3d animation, control such a huge number of operators leading to inefficiency and irregularity in the system. Road Transport in India is all along subjected to heavy and controlling impression essay, innumerable taxes like—Sales Tax, Import Duty, Vehicle Tax, Registration Fees etc. All these have led to excessive Tax burden in the road transport system of the country. Unit cost of operation of road transport has been increasing day by day due to heavy taxes and duties, rise in price of fuel and spare parts and thesis 3d animation, partially due to bad road conditions. Bad road conditions have been resulting heavy wear and tear of tyres and other spare parts, high fuel consumption etc. (v) Rail-Road Competition and Co-ordination: Rail road competition in India is a quite serious problem which affects both these two modes of transport. Such competition causes unnecessary wastage of resources.
Instead of evil competition there should be proper rail-road co-ordination for making these two modes of transport complementary rather than a competitive one. These two modes of transport should be developed simultaneously to have a good co-ordination between the two. Thus there should be a balanced growth of both these two modes of review system, transport. Bachelor? But in India Railways are facing increasing competition from road transports. As for example, the share of road transport in respect of freight has increased from 11 per cent in 1950-51 to 58 per cent in 1985-86 and then to myths essay 40 per cent in 1992. But the share of railways in respect of freight has come down from 89 per 3d animation, cent in 1950-51 to 42 per cent in 1985-86 and then to 60 per cent in 1992. Same is also the case in respect of passenger traffic. Thus through evil competition road transport in essay cell phones be allowed, India is expanding its network over railway transport. Thus to bachelor thesis 3d animation remove such a wasteful competition there should be proper rail-road co-ordination in the country so that one can supplement the other services accordingly. Essay # 5. Suggestions for Improvement of Road Transport System in India:
Following are some of the suggestions for the improvement of road transport system in India: (i) Development of Expressways, Bypasses and a dissertation, Four-Laning of bachelor, Congested Corridors: Considering the huge problem of congestion in food paper, the existing national highways, it is quite important that more national highways, expressways, bypasses and thesis 3d animation, four-laning of congested corridors be constructed throughout the country for maintaining an improved road network. The Government should design a definite financial policy for the improvement of road sector. Sufficient amount of a dissertation, fund should he earmarked for the construction and maintenance of roads. An Expert Group recent estimate suggests to create a fund worth Rs 40,000 crore for the construction and maintenance of roads. The imposition of toll tax and special cess may be imposed for collecting necessary funds for the purpose. The budget of 1999-2000 proposed Rs 1 per litre cess on diesel which will raise nearly Rs 5,000 crore for bachelor 3d animation the infrastructure development fund. (iii) Private Sector Participation on BOT Scheme: As per the amendment of the National Highway Act in 1995, private sector participation in road construction project on Build-Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis should be encouraged to develop a sound road network throughout the country.
A recent study observed that about 10,000 kms expressways is required to be built by controlling, the year 2015 to meet the 3d animation demand adequately. This would cost about Rs 80,000 crore to Rs 1,00,000 crore. Another Rs 52,000 crore would be required to remove deficiencies in the existing network. Considering the present requirement, private sector participation in the road sector on BOT basis should be encouraged. Considering the poor condition of existing road network, steps be taken for proper maintenance of the controlling impression existing roads within the bachelor thesis 3d animation shortest possible time.
The Government should earmark definite fund for proper maintenance of existing road network of the country. Steps be taken for fast paper technical improvement of the road transport sector. The means of bachelor, road transport such as motor vehicles, trucks, bus, cars etc. Controlling Impression Essay? should adopt fuel efficient technology through technical improvement leading to 3d animation fall in the unit cost of road transport. (vi) Autonomous State Transport Corporation: The State Transport Corporation should be made autonomous so that they can manage their affairs freely without any interference from the Government. The activities of the Corporation should be managed on profit oriented basis.
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