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Scientific thesis writing

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Career change resume - FAQs and Tips. Thesis. Appropriate tertiary qualifications. Term Paper Pollution. Career objectives that are consistent with the applicant's experience and scientific the role (i.e. realistic expectations). Competency statements (outline of skills, knowledge and attributes) that match the role requirement. Remember that you control the content of your resume. There are some things that you should include, but in the end it is up to you to berlin essay, decide whether it is relevant or impressive to an employer.

Don't include anything that will raise doubts or cause you to scientific writing, be screened out. Deal with such information in an interview, not a resume. Don't use abbreviations. Use professional or technical jargon only if it is relevant to the position you seek. Write Essay. Don't add irrelevant information eg marital status, health status or DOB. Use plain A4 white paper. Don't leave gaps between employment dates. Scientific. List jobs by month or year depending on their length.

Try to include employment that is math expressions and remembering grade 4 directly relevant to scientific thesis, the job you are applying for. Be consistent with your formatting. Use good spacing to make it easy to term water, read. Use a good quality printer. Keep the presentation of your resume simple. Employers are more interested in scientific the content. It should be neat and term paper water easy to read but you don't have to scientific thesis, go to great expense using fancy paper or folders. Q. What is the isaiah essay, difference between a resume and CV?

There is no difference between a resume and curriculum vitae (CV). Most current employers use these terms interchangeably. Employers ask for scientific writing, one as part of the process of hiring a person. Q. Research Papers Computer. Why have resumes become such a crucial first part of the job application process? Because you need to present yourself the best you can, in order to increase your chances of being short-listed for an interview. Q. How do you get to be a successful applicant? By developing a targeted professional resume that highlights what the employer is looking for.

Q. Why might I be successful with one resume and thesis not another? It may be because you underestimated yourself and undersold your abilities. More often than not, it is because you didn't target your resume and/or communicate your skills and abilities in a clear way. Q. How do I communicate in how long should conclusion a targeted way? Make sure your resume addresses the thesis writing, requirements of the job. Many jobs have selection criteria listed in the job advertisement or job application, which makes this easier. Paper. However, the advertisement may have limited information about the requirements of the scientific writing, role. Some employers deliberately keep this open and wwii thesis ambiguous, so that the thesis, quality and expertise of the applicants decide to some degree what the role will be. They may have a rough idea of the kind of person or skills they are looking for, but they look at the skills and expertise of the applicants to guide their final decision. Q. How do I target my resume if there is limited information?

Research is the important key! You need to research the organisation and the job, role or position. It is also important to highlight your transferable skills in your resume. Transferable skills are those generic skills you have developed through life that may not directly relate to the job you are applying for computer science, or want to apply for. Scientific Writing. They are particularly important for students and graduates who may have limited work experience. Some examples of transferable skills include communication skills (written and essay verbal), team work, leadership, initiative, enthusiasm and interpersonal skills. Although you may not have direct experience in a particular area, you can target your resume to a job by highlighting your transferable skills . These are skills developed from experiences such as your studies, work placements or part-time work. Q. What if I have limited work experience?

It's important to scientific writing, see yourself as a whole package. While you may have limited work experience in the field you wish to work, an employer may look for term paper pollution, your potential skills through your resume. Most graduate employers will look at what you have done in your studies and even outside your studies, such as extra-curricular activities, projects, vacation work, and professional memberships to scientific thesis, decide whether you have the transferable skills to do the job. Q. How To Write Essay. What do you do if you have limited work experience? You could consider using a functional format for your resume. Thesis. This format is designed to emphasise your qualifications rather than specific jobs.

You could include a skills summary in how long a phd thesis conclusion your resume, i.e. a concise statement of your key skills related to the job you're applying for. Your skills summary may include transferable skills developed in part-time, casual, volunteer work or in your studies. Writing. If you have undertaken relevant work experience or voluntary work, don't state that it was unpaid. Your resume is a capabilities statement of what skills, expertise and write word essay benefits you could bring to thesis, your future employer. Q. What if my work experience is not directly relevant to the job? Highlight your transferable skills.

You may not have direct experience in wwii thesis this area, but you might have transferable skills that can be applied across this job. Often it is these transferable skills that make you unique and give you an edge in an interview. Q. Should I include a photo of myself in my resume? No. Employers don't have time to filter through piles of scientific thesis writing, information and documentation. Unless your photo adds direct value (i.e. modelling or acting work), leave it out.

Q. How do I submit my academic results with my resume? Unless requested, you don't need to include your academic results with your resume. If your results are requested, you may need to provide a certified copy of them. You can get certified copies of your results from the essay, university you attended (usually for writing, a fee) or you can get a copy signed by math and remembering grade 4, pharmacist or police officer. Scientific Thesis. Q. What if I have poor academic results? Don't include them in your resume. Don't include anything in your resume that you think will rule you out of contention (e.g. date of birth, etc). You can always address this issue in an interview if raised. How To A 300 Word Essay. Q. How do I submit my resume online? How do I target it to an employer or job? When you submit your resume via email to an employer, attach the resume in thesis writing Microsoft Word format to your email.

If you are sending the resume to a person, make sure you address that person at the beginning on the email. Use formal not informal language. Don't spam employers. They will just delete your application if it is part of group mailout and is not targeted. Q. Paper. I'm older and worried my age will work against me. What can I do? Highlight your most recent work history and accomplishments that demonstrate your ability to do the work you're applying for. Make sure you don't include too much of your work history. Scientific Writing. Don't include date of birth or high-school education and don't go back too far in your work experience. Try to how to write a 300 word essay, structure you resume to suit the targeted job you are going for.

A functional resume format is often the best approach. Q. What if I have gaps in employment or education? Describe what you were doing while out thesis of the work force under an appropriate heading e.g. skills, voluntary or community work (especially if it provided you with valuable experience). Use a skills based resume. Term Water. Don't panic if you don't cover them all. Just include the years you worked rather than the month and scientific writing year. If questioned in an interview explain the reasons why and a 300 essay keep highlighting your strengths (e.g.

I wasn't working at that time because I really wanted to focus on my studies. This demonstrates that you are committed to scientific writing, doing a good job. Q. What if I've only worked for one employer? If you've had different positions within the organization, then list the positions separately and expressions homework explain your responsibilities and accomplishments in each one. If you've stayed in one position only, make sure that you list and expand on your accomplishments for that position. Q. What if I have had a lot of short-term jobs? Try to writing, combine several jobs into isaiah essay, one common area.

For example, under 'Employment' state: '1998-2000 Office administration duties at a hardware store, insurance company and consulting firm.' Q. What if I'm interested in scientific thesis writing more than one work opportunity? Modify your resume for each position so that it is targeted to each organisation and water pollution role. Q. What if I haven't finished my studies? Under the 'Education' section in your resume, state: 'Graduation/diploma/degree anticipated in writing (date)' Q. I'm a student and a phd the only jobs I've held are part-time and summer jobs. How do I make them seem important? Every job you've held is important because you acquired workplace experience. Q. Scientific. What do I do if I have no relevant work experience ? Get some relevant experience through volunteering. Re-examine all your past work and volunteer experiences and see what transferable skills can be highlighted. Q. What do employers look for when selecting graduates? On average, Human Resources (HR) managers spend 15 seconds to 4 minutes reading each resume. What an employer looks for wwii thesis, in an applicant may vary depending on the job they are trying to fill.

However, usually there are common skills or competencies in all jobs. This is especially true in graduate recruitment, where an employer may look to recruit a graduate with generic skills or competencies which can be developed.

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How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to thesis writing Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the papers science most popular in the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the scientific most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an expressions homework grade 4 exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to scientific thesis writing put on your CV, but to apply for “experience” in the form of wwii thesis, exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into an artist’s CV format. Scientific! Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. Computer Science! If you haven’t already read How to Create an Artist’s CV in writing 10 Steps, start there.

Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the term points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist. Refer to point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of writing, other material and experiences to add to the rest of the math homework and remembering CV, this is thesis writing, a good opportunity to tell your reader about papers computer science yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to thesis talk about experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the CV. If you are going to do this, just remember to a 300 word keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest.

You will look desperate if you pretend to scientific thesis be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the isaiah world’s most famous artist. Email me! fancypants@yahoo.com Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France.

Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for some reason the education section of a CV tends to thesis writing be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way. DON’T list any education on your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of isaiah essay, a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from Geoff Parker.

Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. Scientific Writing! If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on berlin essay your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky. I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of a traditional exhibition. Scientific! I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to term paper pollution get it back), and certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone!

DON’T make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list. Refer to point 5 from the writing original article. Thesis! If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections.

Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by scientific thesis, their location. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of wwii thesis, people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by location. DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list.

FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better). Center your text with large margins. Yes, this is cheating when you’re writing an essay. But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and scientific striking. How To Write Word! Include an artist statement and CV on one single page.

Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on scientific thesis writing “ How to Write an berlin essay Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to read this again for sure. Have a lovely day. God Bless. Nice. Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post.

Hello, I’m an thesis emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an assistant for two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in the larger art world. I would like to essay include this work experience in my CV somewhere. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. Scientific Writing! While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on math expressions homework and remembering grade these positions in order to gain experience in the art world and thesis learn about isaiah how to be a professional artist.

I believe it would be helpful to writing have their names on write a 300 essay my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this! I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the scientific thesis writing lines of:

Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of research papers, young and emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to scientific writing your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to their passions and to their craft. Wwii Thesis! Your blog reminds me of a women who is currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in spray-painting. Scientific Writing! I implore anyone and homework everyone to click the following link to see what she has to writing offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the term exhibitions should i also include the scientific thesis title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!!

Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the how to write a 300 word essay title of the show if there is one. Very helpful for scientific thesis writing the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well?

Online features are great to include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the how long should more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an thesis artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and research computer not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it!

I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on writing a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners.

I’d like to wwii thesis get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. I have had my work in scientific writing a few short term shows (not in galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling. Could you please give us some guidance as to term pollution what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of artists getting together to scientific thesis writing put on a show count? Does it have to how to a 300 word essay be a juried show or is thesis, it OK to wwii thesis count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in scientific thesis writing a gallery for five years count, and term paper if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is scientific thesis writing, exhibited, that is an exhibition. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on isaiah berlin essay exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for the date.

This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to everyone.Thank you. Thank you for such awesome and thesis informative articles! I was invited to apply for an artist in how long should thesis be residence program (it was invitation only), and scientific I was a finalist but I did not get the residency. I feel proud to be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the residency. This is wwii thesis, super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to scientific thesis writing put together a CV [I am mainly an math expressions grade abstract painter] and thesis I do have some experience and wwii thesis exhibitions to scientific thesis writing list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and many juried shows.

Should I include some of should conclusion, that in writing my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is papers computer science, part of your artistic experience. You don’t have to scientific writing differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of how long should a phd thesis conclusion, work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together. Writing! Likewise with press. I’m kind of wondering the same thing as the homework and remembering business person in a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to scientific thesis writing do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. What I’ve learned about wwii thesis art is from (lots of) reading and scientific doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of work that is relevant and has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and thesis conclusion be I would really like my work to just speak for itself.

Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival. I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. I also plan on scientific thesis enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey… Thank you for this great article.

I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to word put on thesis writing CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the how to write word essay 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the thesis most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to how long a phd thesis put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is extremely helpful. Thank you. Echoing the long line of thank yous for this and a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and writing illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to include and what to talk about. This is very helpful!

I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to berlin essay stop for financial reasons. hi there all again…. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing writing artists bio’s by any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at how long a phd conclusion, our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV.

I also had my work on thesis writing display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV? You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. Term Water Pollution! If the works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is wonderful and this post has been most helpful. My query: I sold one of my photographs to a large, well-known company for thesis writing use in a film, and research papers science I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading.

Thanks for scientific thesis your help and time in essay replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the well-known company is now the owner of the work. Scientific Thesis! Side note: since the piece was in a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to isaiah berlin essay list them by name unless they have given you permission to scientific thesis share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the berlin end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of scientific thesis, my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV?

It’s remarkable in math homework and remembering 4 support of mee to have a site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for this. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Scientific Thesis! Is that ok to have on the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in the pictures of the science works you had done for an artist in your portfolio.

I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of writing, his art works. Do let me know before I request him for wwii thesis pictures of the work. thank you for this. Hello, I am going to thesis be selling some of how long a phd thesis conclusion be, my work at an art market and wanted to include this on scientific my CV. Where would this fit under? Also, just to paper water clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in scientific thesis writing England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in?

Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for isaiah essay this– it’s so useful. Writing! One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and isaiah have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and scientific thesis writing what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on term paper water pollution Cricketswool and scientific writing commented:

I’m entering the Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work. How To Word Essay! This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. Scientific! i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley. I have an interesting situation. Wwii Thesis! I started out scientific as a fine artist in the 80’s. Then I veered off and math expressions homework became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an actor. Scientific Thesis Writing! I came back to illustration at the turn of century and had lots of success.

About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at high profiles competitions. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and term paper water through an writing agent in Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. All of a sudden I’m getting interest from math homework 4 several representational galleries. I’m given speaking engagements and scientific writing workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and exhibitions over how long should thesis be the years, let alone who owns my work.

Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in my CV.

As you say, don’t OVER play it. Scientific Thesis Writing! Thank you again for research computer science this. Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach. Scientific Thesis! You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;

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Using the Focus Group in Market Research. In a hotel in the centre of London, a group of IT managers are discussing the type of information they need from a supplier of application serving software. They are all involved in the technical side of management and scientific thesis have the requirement for technical information to help them to keep their systems updated. They are looking at, and evaluating different examples of communication material from pamphlets to newsletters, from press releases to websites. They need specific information and isaiah regular contact and they discuss how best a supplier can deliver this to people like them. In a room in the Students Union, a group of students discuss their experiences as students at thesis, the University. Isaiah Essay! They are talking about what they like and writing dislike at the University and how this compares to their expectations before arriving. They are brainstorming words which come to mind when thinking abut the University and are working in pairs to come up with a “strap line” which typifies their experiences.

Eight plumbers have been invited to discuss domestic showers. They are talking about trends in bathroom design and how much influence they have on expressions homework and remembering grade the final decision about which shower is finally installed. They go into great detail about the scientific writing installation issues and the problems they face with certain types of showers. The group is being held in a viewing centre and the Client, a leading European shower manufacturer is watching and listening first hand through a two way mirror. These are all examples of a focus group in action. Wwii Thesis! Focus groups are essentially group discussions which rely heavily on the interaction between group members and scientific the relationship between the researcher and the respondents. Focus groups have been a dominant form of qualitative data collection in market research for water more than 30 years. Tony Blair may well be responsible for increasing public awareness of the focus group as a tool for collecting people’s views.

The newspapers have been proactive in reporting his affinity for the methodology and some have even suggested he dares not make a move without testing out his intentions within a focus group. Despite their recent shunt into the public eye over the past decade, focus groups are nothing new. Within the social sciences, they can be found detailed in the literature as far back as the 1920’s. Scientific! This non-directive approach increased in appeal in the 1930s and 1940s as many sociologists were looking for alternative ways of conducting interviews as the traditional closed response choice questionnaires were being questioned. Paul Lazersfeld, an academic also involved in marketing,used and documented the approach in evaluating audience responses to stimulus material such as films, radio and written manuals. Robert Merton, himself a Sociologist was introduced to the focus group technique by his colleague Lazersfeld, and expressions grade 4 he pioneered the approach with his work during World War II exploring morale in the US military for the War Department (Merton Kendall 1946). Focus groups played a valuable part during the scientific thesis writing Second World War including evaluating the homework grade 4 effectiveness of writing, propaganda efforts and the effectiveness of training materials for the troops (Merton Kendall 1946). It had become recognised that people revealed sensitive information when they felt they were in a safe, comfortable place with people like themselves.

This marked the inception of the isaiah berlin focus group, and many of the procedures accepted as common practice in focus groups were laid down in the work carried out by thesis, Robert Merton with his contemporaries Marjorie Fiske and Patricia Kendall (The Focused Interview 1956). Despite this early enthusiasm, the focus group as a research method seemed to disappear from usage amongst the academic community. Isaiah Berlin! However, the market research community embraced the approach. After the war, business was booming, development was high, and market researchers were charged with finding out how to make their products most attractive to potential customers. The focus group appeared to be the ideal method to stay in thesis touch with customers, in both exploring their needs and identifying their attitudes. The focus group technique has evolved over the years within market research and research science has strongly influenced the business community from product design through to writing promotions and advertising. In the early 1980s the method re-emerged in the academic community and was being used in academic research to understand attitudes and how to word essay behaviours. Around this time, the communications industry adopted the methodology to examine how audiences interpreted media messages, and with this the value of the focus group became increasingly recognised. Thesis Writing! In 1987, the first full length focus group text book by marketers was published (Goldman MacDonald 1987). With this recognition, focus groups have become an increasingly well known method for collecting qualitative data in all fields of how long a phd thesis be, research. The focus group is a research technique used to collect data through group interaction on a topic determined by the researcher.

Thus the Client determines the focus of the group and the data comes from the group. Essentially, it is a group experience. It comprises a small number of carefully selected people who are recruited to a group discussion based on their commonality of experience. Focus groups have four key characteristics: They actively involve people The people have a commonality of experience They provide in depth qualitative data Discussion is focussed to help us understand what is going on. Focus groups typically comprise five to ten people. The group needs to thesis be small enough to allow everyone the opportunity to share insights, and yet large enough to provide group interaction and diversity of experience.

Larger groups can inhibit discussion due to lack of term water, opportunity and scientific thesis writing smaller groups can result in a smaller pool of ideas. Commonality of Experience. Focus group participants have a degree of homogeneity, and this is important to the researcher. How To A 300! This similarity is the basis for recruitment, and indeed, specific requirements may be necessary for attendance at the group. It is crucial to identify who can give you the information you need. It is thesis common for researchers and Clients to jointly identify the key criterion which identify the term paper individuals for focus group discussions. For example, when researching the use of sealant and filler compounds, it may be necessary to thesis writing recruit builders with a certain number of years experience and a minimum level of usage of a 300 word, sealant and fillers in their work practice. Focus groups are a research method which delivers qualitative data that is rich in depth and not numerical in nature. Data tends to be in words, pictures, symbols etc. Scientific! The group provides the forum for discussion, and the group moderator, i.e. the researcher guiding the group, uses their skills to assist the group members to engage in discussion, thus flushing out ideas, attitudes, and experiences. The focus group is more than a group interview.

The key element is the group process; the how long should conclusion interaction between the scientific thesis writing group members. The questions in isaiah essay a focus group discussion are carefully designed to elicit the views of the respondents. A discussion guide is prepared prior to the group and the group moderator uses this as the vehicle for discussion. Scientific Thesis! Careful design of the guide ensures a logical flow of conversation around the topic area, and ensures a clear focus for the discussion. The topic guide is reflective of how groups operate, commencing with introductory questions to help the group to form. This serves to get people talking and wwii thesis feeling comfortable enough to proffer their opinions and experiences. Questions then progress to yield more information, and scientific there should be no pressure on the group members to wwii thesis alter their views, rather, attention is centred on understanding the comments and thought processes as the issues are discussed. Focus groups deliver qualitative depth information, where exploration and identification of attitudes, behaviours and scientific processes are the chief research objectives. They are best used where “why?” “what?” , and “how?” questions require illumination. They can be used in should a phd be three ways in the research design: Stand alone method : where the focus groups are the sole data collection method and they serve as the principal source of data Supplementary to a survey : where they are used to enhance an alternative primary data collection i.e. before a survey to identify the issues, or after a survey to expand and illuminate particular issues As part of a multi method design : where studies use several sources of data collection and no one method determines the use of the others.

The type of scientific, design will depend on the objectives of the research. When focus groups are used as the sole source of data, the objectives centre on identification, exploration, and math homework and remembering 4 illumination, whereas, when these objectives are coupled with quantification, a multi method design will be the preferred option (McQuarrie 1996). Group discussions are especially useful techniques for researching new products, testing new concepts or determining what would happen if… They work because of the thesis interaction between the group members. Math Homework Grade 4! Individuals are not under pressure to give spontaneous answers. They can digest the points raised by scientific thesis, other members and, as they consider the implications of wwii thesis, issues raised, and ideas may be sparked off which would remain untapped in a personal interview. Typical market research situations when focus groups are used are: To unravel complex processes from the basics e.g. a complicated buying process To identify customer needs i.e. Thesis! where there is a complex interaction of factors influencing motives To identify working practices e.g. how a particular product is used To test new products i.e. where something needs showing to people To explore a concept with stimulus aids To explore and math homework grade identify issues of satisfaction for customers, staff or suppliers To explore perceptions of brand and service elements associated with the brand. For the researcher, the decision about whether to carry out focus group discussions or individual interviews is based on several factors. Focus groups are not always practical, and within the business community, it has to be accepted that geography often precludes the bringing together of a focus group. For this reason depth interviews are and will remain (until multiple verbal/visual link ups become feasible) the most widely used qualitative research technique. In general, focus groups are NOT the preferred option where:

Measurement of size and distribution is required The sample base is widespread and small There is the need to protect the respondent from thesis possible bias introduced by others The topic area is sensitive e.g. requiring disclosure of production techniques or identification of customers Respondents require preparation to answer knowledgably. Focus groups are no different from any other research method in papers that they too have their strengths and writing weaknesses. They are not always suitable and some situations and how long thesis conclusion be topic areas need to be dealt with accordingly. Thesis! Culture, the sensitivity of the topic area, difficulties with disclosure, the effect of the hierarchy within the respondent group and the moderator themselves are all considerations that need to be looked at when taking the decision to use focus groups in the research design. The culture of the respondents in relation to openness, honesty and disclosure warrants consideration. In many cultures, particularly in Western countries, people have less difficulty sharing their views with others and engaging in debate where their views may differ from others within the group. The culture is of free speech and Western familiarity that makes the focus group discussion come naturally. However, this cannot be assumed for all cultures. In many Eastern countries, this is research computer science not the case. To appear openly critical of products, services and suppliers cannot be assumed to be so easy.

The natural response is to be more polite and present the account which represents that which is expected to scientific writing be heard rather than the personal account, which may be considered less socially acceptable. The market research industry is expressions and remembering grade 4 less well developed in eastern countries, and this may well be due to thesis writing the nature of disclosure. Using the same focus group methodology to seek the views of end users about what they want from a bathroom shower would reveal a completely different depth of berlin essay, information if carried out in the UK and Hong Kong. Associated with this is the consideration of gender and scientific thesis age of the respondents in the creation of a comfortable permissive environment. Sensitivity of the Focus Topic. Focus groups are an excellent tool for getting people to open up and for flushing out ideas. However, consideration has to be given to the sensitivity of the topic area. It is not surprising that the toilet seat has not changed in design over the years; that condoms do not come in term pollution a variety of sizes and that personal hygiene products tend to be developed through test marketing. To carry out research which requires disclosure of scientific thesis writing, sensitive, personal information and experiences in a group setting is confounded with inherent problems. Such sensitive and potentially personally embarrassing topics are best discussed in essay a private non threatening setting, and this is scientific better achieved though a feeling of anonymity, with the researcher being distanced from the respondent i.e. collection by telephone interview or self completion questionnaire. The Effect of the Group Hierarchy.

Every researcher has to recognise the inherent imbalance of power in the group situation. In general, if people feel equality within the group; between the group members and the group moderator, they are more likely to feel at wwii thesis, ease to share their views, question others within the group and engage in lively debate. For example, when exploring the thesis needs of people using hearing protection, the views of how long should a phd conclusion be, plant workers, supervisors and purchasers would need to be sought. When in the group situation, plant workers may find it difficult to discuss their experiences in front of their supervisors, particularly if some of their actions contravene company policy. Therefore, in planning focus groups, keeping respondent types as similar to each other as possible facilitates more open and candid discussion.

Difficulties with Disclosure. Some people, however similar they feel to other group members, find self disclosure more difficult than others. The group moderator needs to be aware of all individuals in the group and scientific thesis adopt an term water approach which facilitates the inclusion of all respondents, however potentially subversive ideas they may express. For example, focus groups with plumbers which involve disclosure of how they plumb a central heating boiler may reveal practices which are considered to writing be substandard by other members of the group, and this may cause a group member to remain silent about their practices at work. Therefore, intimidation by more skilled and knowledgeable plumbers may inhibit some group members and wwii thesis thus give a skewed view of writing, plumbing practice when it comes to boiler installations. Equally, the commonality of the group members often means the group is made up of people who are, in wwii thesis fact in scientific thesis writing competition with each other in the market place, and there may be a reluctance to disclose their practice for fear of losing a competitive advantage they feel they have.

When carrying out focus groups with members of the legal profession, a moderator will tend to research computer wear a suit. Writing! When carrying out groups with students, s/he might be more inclined to wear casual clothing. The match between the moderator and the group participants has been the subject of much research i.e. How is the credibility of the moderator seen by the group participants? How much does this affect the group dynamics? No consensus has been reached, though the term water key point is that the moderator needs to be accepted by the respondents and have the ability to create a “safe” environment where respondents feel comfortable and confident to express their own personal viewpoint freely. The age, gender and experience of the scientific thesis moderator may be critical factors in some topic areas, but not in others. In general, the moderator’s standpoint will be one of a researcher, not an industry expert, and usually the detachment of the moderator from the topic area works to their advantage. However, in some sensitive topic areas, it may be necessary to match the moderator to the group respondents.

Between six and eight members normally constitute a group though there are no rules as to the ideal number. Ten or twelve must be considered the absolute maximum because anything larger would prevent each member from making a significant contribution to the discussion. As few as three to five group members can still be effective since even with this small number there is sufficient scope for the cross fertilisation of ideas. These small groups are often termed “mini groups” and can be used where respondents are thin on wwii thesis the ground, but the research requires the topic area to be shared in scientific a group. There are no hard and fast rules for deciding how many group discussions should be held. One is rarely ever sufficient, and even two is research papers computer considered an absolute minimum, as even with two groups, a disparity of views would raise doubts as to which was correct. To obtain a better feel and scientific thesis counter the possibility of a rogue response, it is therefore advisable to conduct three or four groups. Due to the saturation of ideas, the benefit of more than (say) eight is questionable. A large number of how to word, groups is justified only if it is thesis thought necessary to hold separate discussions with different classes of respondent (e.g. respondents from large companies as opposed to small ones; Northern companies as against Southern; users and lapsed users, etc). Venues and Timing of Groups.

Focus group discussions can take place in a number of locations. Term Paper! It is scientific writing common for viewing centres to be used for both consumer and business groups. It is, not uncommon for business groups to take place in hotels, at conclusion, courses and conventions or at trade exhibitions. The venue should be carefully chosen to match the thesis writing respondents and and remembering 4 should suit the expectations of the scientific thesis writing respondent group, especially those of wwii thesis, a person attending on behalf of his/her company. The venue must be easily accessible to all, preferably well known in the area and with good car parking facilities. The memory lingers of holding a group for independent pharmacists at a Hotel in the centre of Birmingham where the directions to the hotel were poor, and the parking turned out to be an expensive public car park with no concession for hotel users. The room in which the writing group is to be held should be inspected in advance. It needs to be small and wwii thesis intimate. It should also be free from traffic noise or piped music. It should be set up in board room style for business groups, though a less formal set up is adopted for consumer groups.

The table should be the appropriate size for the number of respondents expected. Too small can be too cosy and too large can be very off-putting and distant. The equipment for recording i.e. Thesis Writing! audio and video recording should be checked beforehand. Isaiah! If the group is being conducted in a viewing centre, this will be taken care of by the viewing centre; otherwise, the moderator will take this responsibility. Working hours are a favourite time for holding most business to business groups, and the evening is favourite for consumer groups. However, the combination of travelling time to thesis writing the venue and the duration of the group itself takes at least two hours and puts pressure on busy schedules and water needs to scientific writing be considered when setting the group times.

Many business to business groups have been held very successfully at science, conferences and seminar locations. Here, the captive audience makes recruitment easier and the abundance of suitable rooms makes this an ideal choice amongst some professional groups. Getting Respondents to Attend. Because group discussions rely on such a small number of respondents, it is essential that care is taken to scientific recruit the right profile. The ideal profile must be decided at an early stage and might include any of the following criteria: Job function of status Awareness of a product or company User or past user of a product or company Represent a company of a certain size (or buying volume) A list is constructed of term paper water, companies for scientific interview, and recruitment begins by telephone. Should A Phd Thesis Be! A recruitment questionnaire provides a screen to eliminate respondents that do not meet the criteria and collects advance data on scientific basic questions. The success of a group discussion is dependent on write word meeting the target attendance rate.

The prospect of the group discussion should therefore be made to sound inviting, and barriers which could prevent attendance must be removed. Several techniques are used by the recruiter to ensure the maximum attendance from those recruited to the group. It is important that the respondent has been “hooked” into the topic area for the group. If an interest has been generated in the topic area, the respondent is more likely to attend. The recruiter needs to sound enthusiastic and make the respondent feel that they have been specially selected to thesis attend the group. It is usual to math expressions 4 give an incentive to respondents to attend, and this can help.

Whilst a financial payment of around ?50 is usual, in business to business groups other incentives can be considered. Testing reactions amongst builders to a new building product can be incentivised by free products and equipment which often has a value to the respondent that is thesis writing higher than the financial payment. After the initial approach has been made and a promise of attendance has been obtained, a letter should be sent confirming the arrangements. The letter acts formally to remind the respondent of the water date, the scientific thesis time and the venue and verifies the wwii thesis purpose of the project. Scientific Thesis! The content and construction of the letter must be businesslike, fully descriptive and emphasise the importance of attendance. A map showing the isaiah location of the venue should be enclosed. One or two days before the group, respondents should be telephoned to remind them of the scientific writing event and also to provide the researchers with view as to the attendance level. Papers Computer! Even with all these precautions, it is not always easy to predict how many will actually attend. The stronger the relationship with the group respondents prior to the group, the greater the likelihood of attendance.

The weather, football matches and television programmes cannot always be foreseen and can play havoc with response rates. It is usual to over recruit for groups as unforeseen circumstances are bound to happen to at least a couple of respondents. In the event of a very high turnout the researcher must decide who should be sent away with their incentive. Groups are led by a researcher whose role differs greatly from that of an interviewer. The group moderator’s role is:

To steer the discussion through a range of topics which are relevant to the problem. The order of these topics is determined as much by spontaneity within the group itself. To act as a catalyst to provoke responses or introduce ideas. Sometimes the researcher should play devil's advocate or feign ignorance. To draw a response from thesis those who are quiet and curb those who attempt to monopolise.

A group moderator does not question individuals as in the conventional interview. Empathy must be created with the members, relaxing them and getting a lively discussion underway. A brief introduction should be followed by an explanation that a tape recording will be made in view of the isaiah difficulties of note taking. It is then necessary to thesis break the ice by asking each member to introduce themselves and their company. Working from the topic guide, developed prior to the group, the researcher moves the discussion from the broad to the particular. In this way, the wwii thesis group is scientific thesis writing encouraged to express their viewpoint and challenge the term paper water views of other group members. Thus, all the scientific issues will unfold with the resultant discussion surrounding the topic area, enabling greater and deeper understanding of the phenomena being researched. Within a small number of respondents, invariably there can be a dominant personality who may attempt to run the math 4 group or whose views colour those of the other members. Equally there may be slow thinkers, introverts, wits, compulsive talkers and the indifferent to scientific deal with. The ability to write be able to thesis bring out the math 4 best from each without insulting or embarrassing anyone requires both authority and tact. Groups generally take between 60 and 90 minutes to administer, depending on scientific the complexity of the subject and research papers interruptions from films or product presentations.

The focus group can take many different forms, and the materials used to stimulate discussion will vary according to the purpose of the group. The group moderator will establish the thesis stimulus materials prior to the group in conjunction with the Client, to ensure all issues are covered. The line of questioning will be defined through the expressions and remembering grade 4 topic guide and thesis writing any additional stimulus materials will be introduced at particular points in the discussion. This sounds as though it should be easy, but it requires particular skill to ensure that the questions asked will deliver the answers to the questions we need answers to. This is because the questions we ask and the questions we need answers to are not one and the same. For example, whilst we usually need the answer to “Why?” questions, the way to discover this is often to math expressions homework and remembering 4 ask “How?” and “When?”, or “What?”.

Paul Lazersfeld (1986) suggested that this line of questioning is writing more productive as the “Why?” question implies a rational answer and people often do not make decisions on this basis. The “Why?” question is too harsh and people have not often thought of this beforehand and therefore find it difficult to answer. Equally, the berlin essay questions need to be of the type where conversation will be opened rather than closed. The questioning route will be clear to the respondents and take account of the time available for discussion. It will generally have an easy non-threatening beginning designed to make the respondents feel comfortable, and scientific thesis writing will follow a clear sequence moving from the general to the specific. Paper Pollution! Good questions are conversational in nature; they use the language of the respondent rather than the Client, they are clear and easy to express, they are open ended and they do not mix dimensions. If respondents are required to carry out a task, or outline a process, the scientific directions need to be clear and well thought out.

The best focus group questions are simply stated. Complex questions are confusing for the respondents and difficult to remember. Math! By contrast, however, the simple question does not produce the simple answer. Stimulus materials, in addition to conversational are: Visual stimulus materials eg video, story boards, photographs, advertisements, web sites Auditory stimulus materials eg tapes, video Product trials and demonstrations. In addition to scientific writing stimulus materials, there are a number of specific techniques which can be utilised in the focus group. Many of these techniques are termed projective techniques and are borrowed from the term paper field of scientific thesis writing, psychology. They are used to seek information on a particular topic by asking about a different or easier topic. Research Papers! They work because they circumvent potential barriers to expression and thesis tap into different ways of thinking (Kreugar 1998).

Brainstorming is a common technique used in paper water most business meetings and scientific writing this is a 300 word essay useful in a focus group to identify issues. It is also closely linked to word associations where respondents are asked to think of words which are associated with a product or brand. Thesis! Sentence completion is a development of word association where the moderator presents the group with an incomplete sentence for word completion. This can be carried out individually and introduced into the group for discussion, or the scientific thesis group can engage in discussion to complete the sentence jointly. Word sorting is essay a technique where the groups are presented with a number of words or sentences and asked to sort them into groups according to the attributes of a product, or brand, or need they have.

This is commonly used in advertising research and identifying positioning statement for products and brands. Developing a campaign is a group activity that can be used. Here, the group is asked to work together to come up with a campaign around an issue, for example to get other mature people, like themselves to thesis writing study at the University of XXX. Some issues are difficult to express in words and picture drawing can be used to stimulate discussion. One example is the heraldic shield. In this, the four quadrants of the shield are designated to how long thesis conclusion various issues and the respondent is required to scientific thesis draw something to represent this (see example below). Projective techniques are generally designed to research computer science extend people’s imaginations, other projective techniques which can be used in the focus group include:

Creating Fantasy e.g. Scientific Writing! if you had a magic wand and could change anything about the way you buy metal working oils, what would you change? Creating analogies questions e.g. If brand X was a car, which would it be? Futuristic Imagination e.g. Looking forward to the next 5 years, how do you think things will change in the way people supply and deliver graduate education Personification e.g. if the retailer Y were a person, what would it be like, what gender, how would it behave? What would it look like? Role play e.g. If you were the MD of Brand X , how would you go about promoting your products to how long thesis people like yourself. Most groups will be both audio and videotaped for analytical purposes. This record assists the researcher in making a full analysis of each individual group, and the groups collectively. Transcripts from the thesis audiotapes will be prepared and the videotapes allow those Clients unable to attend the groups first hand to observe the how long should group dynamics.

They also serve as a record against the audio transcripts of who said what, which enables the researcher to look for particular features in the responses. For example what did those from large companies with several sites say. Focus groups tell us what is writing going on. They put the wwii thesis issues on scientific the table. What they cannot do is pollution measure with any accuracy, the frequency with which these issues occur within a given population (though an idea of frequency is often gained by the pure strength of thesis writing, feeling within the group). In Quantitative research, the emphasis is on computer science the general view, the average, common perspective, whereas in focus group research, it is equally important to highlight and scientific thesis understand the unique and should a phd thesis the peculiar. The data can be analysed in many ways by the researcher. It can take the form of narratives i.e. reconstruction of the accounts in order to scientific thesis writing tell the story, identifying key issues, using frameworks arising from the data (see below) or other recognised business frameworks such as Porter’s Five Forces and qualitative segmentation. Sometimes, focus groups are followed by quantitative research, where the issues that have been uncovered are measured for distribution across the berlin essay study population through a broader survey.

However, qualitative research, using the writing focus group methodology is paper water frequently a stand alone method and the learnings are sufficient to direct action. There is scientific a considerable volume of output from focus group research. It is not unusual for just one group transcript to wwii thesis run to more than 60 pages, and it is the job of the researcher to bring meaning to scientific writing the data. The analysis of the data is papers science inevitably related to the intent of the study. Qualitative analysis is scientific often subject to criticism for subjectivity, and analysis must follow a process. Focus group analysis must be systematic, sequential and verifiable. By this, it must be deliberate and planned. How To Write Word Essay! It is scientific all too easy to focus on particular comments within a group which have been committed to memory, but the analysis must systematically follow a process which actively looks for berlin essay competing and alternative explanations. The process of analysis involves several researchers, and the analysis should be verifiable across researchers. This acts as a critical safeguard against the selective attention to thesis some details of the data.

The trail of evidence which can be found by a number of researchers looking at papers science, the data is located into a framework. Scientific Writing! For example, when looking at the communication needs of IT managers, key variables are identified and the communication needs and requirements can be located within these (see example below): Focus groups take their roots in the social sciences and have been adopted by market researchers as a valuable interface between businesses and their customers. Focus group research has been used in the industry for more than 30 years and there is expressions a wealth of published literature on the relative merits of the methodology and its contribution to business practise. Whilst some idea of frequency can be gained from focus groups, in essence, focus groups do not seek to measure; they uncover issues, unravel processes and test reactions and perceptions. They can be used stand alone, and they can augment and scientific writing complement other methodologies. When choosing this data collection methodology, the purpose of the study needs to be considered carefully. Human beings are programmed as social beings; we perform in groups for much of our day to day interactions. The focus group uses this feature as a tool to collect data about people’s experiences. Focus group interviewing is about observing and listening. The focus group is a powerful tool and the learnings are great in a short space of time.

The group experience is key; it is about creating the right environment to enable people to should freely express their views, using the right tools to get them to open up and to scientific listen to and make sense of water, their views. The ingredients of scientific writing, a successful focus group are getting the right people, in the right place, with the right group moderator and the right line of questioning. The logistics of setting up groups cannot be underestimated; the best moderator with the best stimulus tools will not manage to achieve the how to write research objectives with wrongly recruited respondents and vice versa. The data generated from focus group studies can be voluminous. Listening to the accounts alone is not sufficient and after the groups have been conducted, therein starts the job of scientific, making sense of these accounts.

It is the paper water pollution job of the analyst to bring together the findings into thesis, clear frameworks. Focus groups have made a huge contribution to the business world. They can be criticised for their subjectivity, for the small sample sizes and the purposive sampling methods that are used. However, it must be remembered that each research design has its flaws and the objective of the research is crucial in determining the methods which are used to collect data. Quantitative methodologies have their strengths in standardisation, reliability, and measurement, usually through surveys with larger sample sizes; however the qualitative focus group design has its strength in the richness of the data, the ability to understand and explore perceptions, behaviours and motivations. It is not the type of research that seeks to control and predict, rather it will provide understanding and a phd thesis be insight, and it is this very feature that gives the focus group its unique position as a research methodology.

Goldman AE Mac Donald SS (1987) The group depth interview. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hague P (2002) Market research: 3rd Edition. Scientific Thesis! London, Kogan Page Ltd, Kreugar RA (1998) Developing questions for focus groups (Focus group kit 3). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Kreuger RA Casey MA (2000) Focus Groups 3rd Edition: A practical guide for applied research. Thousand Oaks CA, Sage Publications. Lazersfield PF (1972) Qualitative analysis: Historical and critical essays. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Lazarsfeld P (1986) The art of asking why. New York: Advertising Research Foundation (original work produced in 1934 in The National Marketing Review)

McQuarrie EF (1996) The market research toolbox: A concise guide for beginners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Merton RK Kendall PL (1946) The Focused Interview. Essay! American Journal of Sociology, 51, 541-557. Merton RK, Fiske M Kendall PL (1956) The Focused Interview.

Glencoe, IL: Free Press. Morgan DL Kreuger RA (1998) The focus group kit. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Morgan DL (1993) Successful focus groups: advancing the writing state of the art. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications. Readers of this white paper also viewed: Publications by Theme.

Publications by Type. Speak to an expert. Manchester Business School. Overall the study was conducted and reported in a professional manner that delivered specific and targeted feedback. The study has helped to provide good insight that wasn't previously there. The quality of work throughout the how to write a 300 process was outstanding. My expectations have been exceeded on each of the scientific thesis writing projects I have worked on with B2B International.

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Scientific Thesis Writing - College of Science - NTU

A College Opts Out of the Admissions Arms Race. In an era in scientific which universities are expected to isaiah draw more and more applicants each year #8212; as if they were Fortune 500 companies being forced to thesis writing show annual profits #8212; Ursinus College, a liberal arts institution outside of research papers computer Philadelphia, would seem to have little reason to celebrate this year. Applicants for scientific thesis writing, this fall#8217;s freshman class have plunged by 1,700 #8212; or nearly a third #8212; when compared with last year at write essay this time. And yet, Richard DiFeliciantonio, the thesis writing university#8217;s vice president of enrollment, said in an interview on Monday that the drop was not only welcome but deliberate, after a five-year period in which Ursinus saw its applications nearly triple. #8220;You know as well as I that those numbers aren#8217;t real,#8221; Mr. DiFeliciantonio said by phone from the school#8217;s campus in Collegeville, Pa. #8220;People count anything that moves as an expressions homework application. Scientific Thesis! Everyone is going up 10 percent every year for 20 years. It#8217;s absurd.#8221; #8220;At some point,#8221; he added, #8220;the credibility of those numbers is questionable.#8221; Mr. DiFeliciantonio readily admits that Ursinus, until this year, was only happy to let itself be swept up in the admissions arms race. Like a baseball player choosing to wwii thesis bulk up on scientific thesis, steroids, Ursinus came to the conclusion in term paper water 2005 that it needed to get bigger. Specifically, the college wanted to increase its freshman class by about 100 #8212; to scientific thesis writing just under 550 #8212; in essay part to scientific thesis bring in students who might fill classes in new disciplines like biochemistry, environmental studies and the performing arts.

To do so, Mr. DiFeliciantonio hired a direct-marketing firm from Virginia called Royall and Company, and its initial recommendations were that Ursinus waive its $50 application fee and its essay requirement. The results were immediate: in one year, from expressions homework grade 2005 to 2006, applications to Ursinus more than doubled, to scientific 4,413, from 1,725. Two years later, they grew yet again, by another 40 percent, to 6,179. To the outside world, Ursinus was suddenly red-hot in popularity. While emphasizing that Royall had done exactly what Ursinus had asked it to do, Mr. DiFeliciantonio said he had become increasingly uneasy with the homework 4 shaky foundation on scientific thesis writing, which the math school#8217;s growth was built. Writing! Mr. DiFeliciantonio#8217;s main concern was that every year Ursinus received more of Royall#8217;s #8220;fast track#8221; applications and offered admission to wwii thesis more applicants, but the percentage who accepted the writing offer #8212; known as the yield #8212; went down steadily.

For example, in 2005, the how long a phd conclusion be year before it brought on Royall, the yield was about 30 percent #8212; meaning that of the 1,290 high school seniors offered admission, about 420 enrolled. But by last year, the yield figure had plunged to 13.5 percent. Scientific Thesis! #8220;That meant almost 87 percent we admitted weren#8217;t going to come,#8221; Mr. DiFelciantonio said. So how did Ursinus manage to consciously slim down this year? For one thing, it ended its relationship with Royall last spring. For another, it restored the essay questions to its application, including one that asked applicants to respond to the Mark Twain quotation, #8220;Education consists mainly of what we have unlearned.#8221; Applicants were also required this year to submit a high school term paper graded by math expressions, one of their teachers #8212; the thesis writing better for Ursinus to verify that the applicant#8217;s writing elsewhere in science the application was genuine. In other words, Ursinus has become that rare college that has made it harder for students to scientific writing apply #8212; and thus ensuring that those who submit applications are more likely to consider attending if accepted. Sometimes when a college#8217;s stream of applications slows, its ranking can suffer in U.S. News, the publication that drives at least some of the arms-race mentality.

Ursinus says its ranking never really ticked up much during its recent boom #8212; it has tended to hover around No. 70 among national liberal arts institutions, Mr. DiFelicantonio said #8212; but it is now willing to take a hit in those standings, if that means saving the time of applicants and admissions officers alike. #8220;We#8217;ve taken a bit of a leap,#8221; said Mr. DiFeliciantonio, adding that he was unaware of another college that had taken a similar step, at least not in math expressions homework recent years. #8220;I hope our yield pops up, ideally to 16-17 percent. If it does, we#8217;ll have a class of about 460.#8221; To comment on Ursinus#8217;s decision to drain its applicant pool #8212; as well as on scientific, the admissions arms race in general #8212; please use the how long should a phd thesis box below. To read a front-page article about Royall that I wrote last January, click here; to see the comments that piece drew on The Choice blog, click here.

Comments are no longer being accepted. So now, can we all step back and scientific writing reflect on the perversity of the USN rankings, where a college might actually receive a lower ranking after it adds requirements to its application process, which, by any rational measure, would seem to increase the academic credentials of its incoming student body? How could that make it a lesser institution? Thank you, Mr. DiFeliciantonio and wwii thesis Ursinus College. Fantastic. Sometimes it takes a difficult step back to make that progressive, giant leap forward in the long run. Those in roles similar to Mr. DiFeliciantonio know that unfortunately, and paradoxically, the Ursinus strategy will result in a drop in quality, diversity and revenue for the university. I wonder if that will be fine with faculty, administrators, and trustees. Free applications, multiple electronic and hard copy solicitations from the same school to apply-apply-apply and a hardcore commitment to raising rejection rates in order to become #8220;competitive#8221; with a particular set of schools is a private college/university reality.

What#8217;s an applicant to think? College and university tuition payers need to scientific writing reject the simple alignment of research papers admissions selectivity with educational quality. Dig more deeply into the actual programs offered, ratings of those programs by professionals in that field. There are some truly superior institutions and educational values out there if you reject selectivity as nothing more than a much-abused crutch for college admissions marketeers. For the #8220;keep us with the Joneses#8221; crowd keep reading USNews and scientific writing don#8217;t forget to pay retail. I did searches of how long should thesis all the web domains from scientific thesis which my daughter received college spam or those listed on literature she got in how to a 300 word the mail. Every single one was registered to thesis this Royall outfit in Richmond. They were all tailored to look deceptively like the mail was coming from a college (mit-info.org, etc) but were all from this spam mill. Berlin Essay! They buy kids data from College Board, and moronic institutions like Ursinus pay them to spam millions of teenagers. This outfit needs to be investigated for deceptive communications via the internet with minors. When the scientific thesis writing experience of Ursinus in recent years is extrapolated over thousands of schools and millions of paper water pollution applicants, no wonder the thesis process of applying to college has become so anxiety-provoking and expensive.

Hopefully this new strategy will work out for Ursinus and wwii thesis other colleges and universities may follow suit. This is a very impressive move. It#8217;s rare to see integrity outweigh the numbers game that colleges feel pressured to play. Malcolm Gladwell had a very interesting article in the recent New Yorker on the standards used to rank colleges and graduate programs by USN and other ranking agencies. Scientific Thesis Writing! Ursinus will probably pay a price for this#8230;but maybe they#8217;ll gain points on the #8220;Reputation#8221; category to offset that price. Again, the whole system is poisoned. As a college counselor, I applaud Ursinus#8217; decision. Yes, I ran into kids this year who were unwilling to complete the requirements #8212; but that just showed, exactly as Ursinus intended, that they were not great fits. My student who has been accepted there is thrilled about the school and the fit to her, and I#8217;m delighted she was willing to put the berlin essay work into this hidden gem of a school. @Gordon, I think you might be right for some schools, but Ursinus has always been small and thesis writing tuition-driven; I don#8217;t think this will hurt them the way you imagine. They were not getting 87% of the students with the big jump, so this won#8217;t keep kids away who really planned to attend. And good guidance counselors will help kids manage these applications, not encourage them to give up even if the school is a good fit!

Using an efficient screening procedure to find the truly interested students? Apparently the keeper of isaiah berlin essay knowledge can learn too. It is an educational environment, after all. Sanity lets hope it spreads. I worked for (in admissions) and recently resigned from a college who#8217;s admissions requirements were questionable at best. One aspect I did not agree with was how liberal their admissions policies were, I wished every day that they would toughen their admissions requirements, perhaps they would be able to restore their former reputation if they did not accept every warm body that typed an application online. Cannot imagine how raising the bar on the application process, and writing not paying a third party to expressions and remembering inflate its numbers, could do anything but yield a longterm increase in scientific thesis writing the quality and size of the student body. Nice work, Ursinus. Bravo to Ursinus!! Sanity prevails!! Other schools should follow in their footsteps.

Big deal. The real question is term water how many of those students Ursinus (or any college) admits and scientific writing enrolls are qualified to do the work, and then given the support and wwii thesis financial aid necessary to help them achieve success. Since very few of the scientific thesis 3000 colleges in water pollution this country reject more than half of their applicants, the true name of the Admissions Office should be the Enrollment Management Office. Scientific Thesis Writing! Their task is to recruit and retain students, who happen to how to a 300 word fill not only the scientific thesis writing classrooms, but also the additional revenue producing residence halls and isaiah essay dining facilities. With tuition and fees of thesis writing $30,000 per year, the paper water loss of 100 students in thesis writing a class translates to a revenue loss of $3 million. That#8217;s quite a hit for many institutions, particularly small, private colleges. The problem is the ranking based on pure numbers USN. Note that ranking is based on the data PROVIDED BY THE SCHOOL and not independently verified.

This issue of self reporting and the effect of inflated raing was in the news a few days ago: Does USN verify the data before it ranks? Bravo to Ursinus, which is following in the path established by term paper pollution, Reed College in scientific writing Portland, OR. They opted out write a 300 word essay of the scientific writing US News rankings years ago, and are acknowledged to homework and remembering be the most academically rigorous school in the nation. More schools should do the same. The result, as in Reed#8217;s case, will likely be better students who are more committed to the institutions that have chosen them, and that they have chosen as well. Mr. Writing! Feliciantonio#8217;s change of direction reflects the brilliance of common sense and the payoff of moral courage, and in itself makes for a wonderful talking point vis a vis Twain#8217;s assertion in regard to #8220;unlearning.#8221; Huzzah for the return of standards! I bet this results in a far stronger class overall! Wow, potential students balk at the idea of having to write a 300 essay write a simple essay to get into college, are you kidding me! In that case, they deserve to go to a school where the admission requirements are low, and the resulting degree means even less.

And we wonder why our education system is falling apart in some areas. Having gone through the college admissions game with each of my three children, I applaud this small college for taking a big step toward sanity. Parents mistakenly believe that gaining admission to those few selective colleges will make their children happy and successful. It#8217;s how a student can benefit from a college that really makes the scientific thesis writing difference, not the name of the school or its admission ratings. Just to play the devil#8217;s advocate#8230; Ursinus took a second look at its admissions process not necessarily because the administrators felt bad about it morally. They revisited the issue mainly because the yield was dropping precipitously. (at least that#8217;s how it appears to me from reading the article.) If the school has to accept that many more students to offset the dropping yield, then at the end, the acceptance rate barely budges and may even increase. (All that extra work and paying the outside firm for nothing!) If the yield had stayed the same, who knows whether the wwii thesis school would have taken any actions? By the way, the falling admit rates at elite universities for writing, the most part have to do with more students from different backgrounds applying to these schools in our society that#8217;s becoming more competitive, and have less to research papers do with gaming the system. As a recent Ursinus graduate, I am extremely impressed with this new direction.

I remember that in 2008, when the school was struggling the most to support its own weight, students had to give up many of the limited common spaces such as living rooms and dorm study areas in order to provide housing for everyone. Small colleges, especially small private colleges such as Ursinus, should pride themselves in what they represent instead of trying to be something they should not, and cannot, aspire to be. What was the writing number of enrolling students that corresponded to the low 13.5% yield? Higher or lower than the 420 under the previous system? If the math grade 4 point of the writing program was to create higher enrollment, just having application numbers is rather meaningless.

The presumption from reading the article is that the results were not proportionate to how to a 300 the effort. However, without that bit of data the thesis rest of the piece is fluff, not reporting.

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essay nam viet war American Studies Resources Centre at LJMU. Vietnam: a watershed in war writing. by Richard Hills. The experience of Vietnam changed forever the nature of writing about war in American culture. Literature on the two World Wars tapped into a sense of cultural identity, masculinity and individual heroism to thesis, describe the American response as heroic and how long be, victorious and promote an idea of a ‘good war’ in which national interests are ultimately restored. By contrast, the Vietnam War was fought against a background of a culturally fragmented society. By examining the work of writers such as Norman Mailer, Tim O’Brien and thesis writing, Michael Herr, and the photographs of Tim Page, it explores the way in isaiah berlin which war was portrayed in a far more realistic, if often ugly light. This article is adapted from the winning entry in this year’s essay competition, Richard Hills, a final year student at Liverpool John Moores University. Posted 13 February 2003.

Honesty in writing. The Historical versus the scientific writing, personal in war writing. The war in Vietnam continues to evoke images and wwii thesis, representations of an enduring and traumatic nature and remains a dominant political, social and moral benchmark in the contemporary American cultural consciousness. The textual diversity in literature, art, journalism and music of Vietnam is extensive, and chronicles the histories and legacies of the struggle to reflect a range of social and cultural anxieties that were borne out of the experience. Historically therefore, war texts have operated as genres which have had their origins in expressing and revealing the experience of conflict and working as mediums by which a society can make sense of a particular national and cultural situation. Contemporary preconceptions of Vietnam are perhaps due largely to the imagery prevalent in this multiplicity of textual information. The diverse accounts of the writing, histories and experiences of the conflict in literature can be seen as fairly interdisciplinary in their approaches, since the styles and isaiah berlin, aims of war reporting are both quite broad and ultimately similar in their aims. The variety in terms of methodology is also widespread, ranging from the fictional novels of DelVecchio for example, to personal memoirs in a first person narrative, oral histories and also factual journalistic reportage.

Due to scientific thesis, the contrasting styles and graphic content of war writing, the literature of Vietnam can perhaps be seen as displaying ideologies of combat much more prominently than any other type of genre – both in terms of form and also in wwii thesis outlook. Consequently, war writing has therefore functioned as traditionally dominant generic form. Thesis Writing? As a result, there is a sense in which a linguistic authority has developed in these texts in order to reflect war as action, war as institution, war as nation, and war as an individual autobiographical experience. A Phd Conclusion? It is clear therefore that war writing is rich in scientific writing form and aims to highlight a collection of contrasting perspectives and ideologies in order to externalise the term paper, various emotional experiences of war. As a result, it can be interpreted that a primary narrative intention is scientific, concerned not only with an attempt to categorise experience of battle in a phd thesis conclusion be historical and personal terms, but also an attempt to embody the tension between the historical and the personal in the text. David Wyatt, in his collection Out of the Sixties , recognises the importance of war writing as culturally and historically important and asserts his view that ‘the thread that ties these various genres together is the importance of a common response and the need to represent these culturally insidious images.’ This essay will consider a variety of cultural responses to writing, the war in Vietnam and will firstly examine the writing of Michael Herr and Tim O’Brien in order to address the distinctive styles and objectives of war literature.

The essay will also examine the impact of photographic narratives as dominant cultural and historical accounts. Through an analysis of these texts in a 300 word essay terms of their style and form, the essay will then ask what these narratives are ultimately trying to achieve in their portrayals and representations and will consider whether they work in establishing a sense of the futility and horror of Vietnam. The prominence of a more innovative and modern approach in the literature of Vietnam can be seen as widely removed from the style of war writing of World Wars One and Two. By tapping into and referring to a sense of cultural identity, masculinity and individual heroism, this previous war literature had its origins in providing enduring cultural narratives and ideologies of the scientific, American national and of victory. Consequently, it had been difficult to produce an anti-war novel due to wwii thesis, the ways in which such texts functioned as dossiers indicative of scientific thesis, conservative American ideals and which were complimentary to a patriotic consciousness. By suggesting and describing the American response as heroic and victorious, there is a sense in which these texts promote an idea of a ‘good war’ in which national interests are ultimately restored and delivered in ways an American public would appreciate. These novels are therefore seen as reflexive of the current social and historical conditions in their outlook. As a result, there is a sense in which they can perhaps also work as propaganda literature in their assessments of the wwii thesis, enemy and in the endorsement of national welfare. In contrast, Norman Mailer was aware of the social and cultural implications during which the earlier war genre was produced and attempted to writing, construct reactionary images in his literature so as to counteract the write essay, political implications this writing brought about. By simultaneously attempting to de-humanise the concept of war and highlight war literature as a device that could criticise domestic policies, Mailer was immediately able to render the military effort futile and critique the conflict through bold emotional imagery and a more negative military representation.

The Naked and the Dead. In his novel The Naked and the Dead , Mailer is somewhat radical in his appraisals of the war effort and attempts to reflect the more unsavoury nature of combat in a couple of ways. Firstly, by discarding the accepted American idea of a ‘good war’ and secondly by replacing the traditional stereotyped representation of the heroic and crusading American soldier with a less dramatic portrayal. Scientific Writing? Through his presentation of the soldiers as sex driven, brutal, racist alcoholics, and by commenting on the graphic description of the war effort, Mailer is able to highlight the futility of modern combat and present Sergeant Croft as a pseudo fascist madman. In doing this, Mailer’s character representation subverts the earlier image of the American soldier and asks questions about the validity of the common stereotype of the American soldiers as gallant and papers computer science, laudable heroes. Mailer’s characters are revealed as extremely un-amiable in their treatment of themselves and thesis, the enemy.

In Nicolas Tomalin’s extract from The New Journalism entitled The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong , the American soldiers indicate their reluctance to recognise the Vietcong as human in a refusal of individuality. “ ‘There’s no better way to term paper, fight than goin out to shoot VCs. An’ there’s nothing I love better than killin’ ‘Cong. No sir.’ “ In contrast, Mailers characters acknowledge the enemy as human whilst remaining committed to the massacre of the enemy to scientific thesis, provide a comment on research computer science, the futility of the conflict. The fact that Sergeant Croft’s more liberal superior ultimately dies, suggests a metaphor to scientific thesis, American society and a phd conclusion, offers a social critique on thesis writing, how war represents a nightmare scenario and will ultimately condemn and divide a functional society – as if a comment on the disruptive, conservative and bureaucratic nature of war. Mailer’s writing can be seen as a satirical attack on attitudes to war through his condemnation of the war effort and the traditional assertion of war as ‘good’. His style consequently contradicts and term pollution, differs from the position of scientific thesis, earlier war writing due to Mailer’s insistence that war is essentially socially unjust. In this sense, The Naked and the Dead can be seen as a re-negotiation of generic values to ultimately express a nihilistic vision of the effects of war on the individual and society. Mailer successfully brings to light the term pollution, disparity between certain representations of war as ‘good’ and what is seen as a more accurate reality of unprecedented horror and moral betrayal.

The Things They Carried. Tim O’Brien explores similar themes in his account of Vietnam in The Things They Carried. The form of the text can be regarded in scientific contrasting ways, in terms of a fictional novel or as a collection of personal memoirs. According to David Wyatt, Vietnam found itself, in the writing of it, “caught in a style match between what could be called innocent and informed accounts.” In thinking of the book as an informed account of Vietnam and therefore as chronicled non-fictional accounts, The Things They Carried can be seen as typical of returning to the old tradition of war writing. How To Write Word? This is recognisable in terms of the narrative emphasis O’Brien places on scientific writing, group camaraderie, individual heroism, and the way in which he and the other soldiers refer to wwii thesis, the Vietcong as ‘Charlie’, - to reflect the ideology of American patriotism and thesis, the idea of the noble soldier fighting for justice. However, it is much clearer that the majority of the narrative is concerned with emotional turmoil and berlin, the distressing burden of the war effort, in this sense revealing the trauma and threat and working as an innocent narrative despite O’Brien’s own Vietnam memories. In the chapter The Man I Killed O’Brien’s language encapsulates his horror, guilt and scientific thesis writing, fear after having killed a young Vietcong soldier; “His jaw was in his throat, his upper lip and teeth were gone, his one eye was shut, his other eye was a star shaped hole, his eyebrows were thin and shaped like a woman’s, his nose was undamaged, . his clean black hair was swept upward into a cowlick at the rear of his skull, … there was a butterfly on his chin, his neck was open to the spinal cord and the blood there was thick and shiny and it was this wound that had killed him.” The way in which O’Brien describes the dead man provides an indication of the brutality and terror of pollution, war and is in keeping with Mailer’s adoption of the innocent war writing technique in The Naked and the Dead . The sense of unique grievance that O’Brien exudes through his language in his chapter highlights the scientific, fact that ‘war hurts’ and also reveals the reality of ‘Killing’.

It is interesting that O’Brien makes use of a somewhat poetic style of language to describe a dead body in what might appear to be an attempt to disguise the horrific injuries and the suffering of war. More realistically however, is the research science, idea that this descriptive style is intended to provide a more informed vision of the conflict and in doing so, makes the reader aware of the extent of the scientific thesis writing, suffering. How To Write A 300 Essay? The poetic references in language parody the thesis writing, brutality and berlin, masculinity of war in the description of his feminine features. Thesis? The ‘star shaped hole’ is perhaps symbolic of the American flag and a reminder of the expectations of a nation for its soldiers to kill and destroy. Science? At the same time however, the graphic nature of the language is equally indicative of both the graphic nature of bloodshed, and also the consequent emotionally draining aspect of the war. “We had ways of making the dead seem not so dead…. By slighting death … we pretended it was not the terrible thing it was.”

The fact that O’Brien finds it hard to come to terms with something that was readily expected of him as a soldier shows how Vietnam has forced him to internally struggle with his conscience. Furthermore, he is thesis, as a result unable to adhere to the stereotype of being the ‘killer’ society expects of him. This highlights O’Brien’s sentiments of vulnerability and insecurity in elation to the enemy. O’Brien’s character seems to embrace wholeheartedly the role of storyteller and social critic in isaiah berlin the text. He is convincing in his argument that the text is a work of fiction rather than an informed account based on personal experience. He discards the relevance of any informed authority in his accounts of war when he states: “Can the foot soldier teach anything important about the war, merely for scientific writing having been there? I think not. He can tell war stories.”

In the quantity and quality of paper water, his work, O’Brien argues for well-told stories, as the least the scientific thesis, war deserves. This is inherent in his assertion that if war fiction were produced exclusively by accurate accounts of events in Vietnam, then the destructive nature of combat would be more difficult to achieve in writing. This is due to the fact that the soldiers failed to recognise and appreciate the occurrence of singular events in relation to a sense of an ultimate developing drama. O’Brien admits that in war stories, “absolute occurrence is irrelevant”. He makes the case that by retaining the importance of a degree of fiction in war novels; Vietnam can be given a shape that conveys its disparaging and negative forces in a broader context. David Wyatt emphasises that ‘the reflexivity of all war … becomes in The Things They Carried a masterful self-reflexivity, a continual re-figuring of earlier work in order to tell us “How to Tell a True War Story”.’ Ultimately, O’Brien suggests that war stories insist upon and perhaps largely consist of their desperate attempt to obtain or reflect the how long should conclusion be, truth; conforming to the rhetoric of re-telling.

This use of repetition functions as a way of making sense of the war’s impact of scientific, devastation in both physical and personal terms. Michael Herr’s landmark invention of a new journalistic voice in Dispatches is similar to how long a phd thesis conclusion be, The Things They Carried in terms of it also attempting to represent the confused reality of Vietnam. The narrative is scientific thesis, distinctive in terms of being a collection of expressions homework and remembering, factual journalism and scientific thesis, reportage, and delivers innovative methods of relaying events through impressionistic and image-laden accounts of the struggle. In this sense, the text offers fresh and exciting ways of codifying the Vietnam experience. In contrast to the standard conventions and established language of orthodox war reporting, Herr’s journal is a composite of reports and articles to extend beyond an autobiographical account and wwii thesis, ultimately offer a wider historical and cultural awareness of the conflict of Vietnam. Although Dispatches is generically different in the way is it not presented as a work of fiction, it is comparable with Tim O’Brien in scientific thesis the sense of being a text primarily concerned with providing stories about the American experience in Vietnam. His achievements in the text arise from the implementation of a disjointed narrative that immediately reflects the popular consumer culture amongst the American soldiers to ultimately portray a fragmented imagery of the conflict.

Consequently, Herr’s narrative comprises of a multiplicity of language; he creatively fuses the vocabulary of research, American youth and drug cultures by scientific thesis, utilising hippie vernacular, pop lyrics, military jargon, black slang and technical press terms in what can be interpreted as a very post-modern appraisal of the Vietnam struggle. “He had the wwii thesis, name Marlene tattooed on his upper arm, … On the back of his flak jacket he had once written, “Yea, though I walk through the Valley of the shadow of Death I shall fear no evil, because I’m the meanest Muthafucker in the Valley,” but he had tried later, without much success, to scrub it off because, he explained, every damned dude in the DMZ had that written on their flak jackets. And he’d smile.” Herr’s accounts of the war are presented in a language that buys into the consciousness of the generation and which therefore inherently condemns the Vietnam conflict. Scientific Writing? This discourse of language is rich in the idea of humanity that transcends earlier war literature and consistently opposes the more horrific side of isaiah berlin, Vietnam. Dispatches makes much of the comradeship of the soldiers and thesis, emphasises the role of word, charity in the face of adversity.

This alternative narrative in terms of writing, style and language embodies Herr’s reportage as a critique of conventional war journalism. His narrative and use of techniques such as montage are in contrast to the approach of standard media correspondents, and reveal the difficulties involved in writing traditional ‘stories’ about Vietnam. The often-fragmented nature of Herr’s narrative helps the reader to obtain a position in which to fully appreciate the experience of Vietnam, rather than relying upon a traditional linear discourse of how to a 300 word essay, narration. However, the subject matter of the writing, text is perhaps less reliant on highlighting the actual experience of Vietnam, and would prefer to discuss a fuller exploration of that experience. Rather than attempt to recreate the war in a literary documentation, Herr’s objectives can be interpreted as wanting to how long a phd, examine and investigate his memories of Vietnam.

His approach is based on the assumption that in scientific thesis order to a phd conclusion, obtain a more meaningful insight into the struggle; it is necessary to leave behind the actual events of the war and writing, attempt to locate the experience of it in a much broader context. This approach is similar in form to the suggestions of Tim O’Brien in his work. Herr’s experience in Vietnam highlighted a problem in terms of condemning the research computer, popular representation of war in popular imagination and attempting to replace these images with what was considered to scientific writing, be a truthful reflection of write a 300 word, American experience in Vietnam. Herr maintains that the flexible nature of war literature in promoting the idea of a ‘good war’ and the image of the heroic soldier hindered the reader from thesis writing arriving at a truer and essay, more meaningful understanding of the hostility of war. Dispatches offers an thesis writing, alternative insight into the role and experience of the soldier. Due to his fragmented narrative and plethora of linguistic jargon, Herr seems to suggest that Vietnam was futile from the point of view of all those who experienced it and stresses the impossibility of wwii thesis, arriving at fixed meanings and rational thinking. Writing? Herr’s text is paper water, therefore symptomatic of a text rich in the discourse of truth and brutal reality. Rather than trying to explain or rationalise the war in scientific thesis any length, the write word essay, stories of Herr and other correspondents such as Tim Page, were primarily concerned with attempting to capture the horror and beauty of the place – and thereby offer a more realistic and representative account of life in Vietnam.

It is therefore clear that the work of writers such as Mailer, O’Brien and Herr have had their origins in an attempt to re-emphasise the narcissistic nature of combat, whilst managing to retain and highlight the importance and beauty of life in an appraisal of humanity. These texts both discard the notions of war as something symbolically rewarding, as was the scientific thesis, case in previous war writing, and replace these sentiments with ideas about reality and civilisation. By highlighting the devastation of the math homework and remembering 4, war effort through both brutal and compassionate language and imagery, the reader is in a position to attain a more realistic account of the nihilistic characteristics of a war, and the effects this has in relation to individual experience. The war photography of Tim Page. With the publication of thesis, Dispatches in 1977 came to prominence the work of Vietnam War photographer Tim Page.

Page’s photographic evidence of Vietnam is complimentary to Herr’s written accounts in the sense that they both share a common quest to highlight the war’s experience both in terms of grief and suffering, but also in terms of recording the drug and rock aspects of GI culture. Herr quotes Page’s reaction to a request from a British publisher for a book which would “finally take the glamour out wwii thesis, of the scientific thesis writing, war.” “Take the glamour out of the war?! I mean, how the wwii thesis, bloody hell can you do that ? Go and writing, take the glamour out of a Huey, go take the glamour out of a Sheridan … Can you take the glamour out of a Cobra or getting stoned on China Beach? … Oh war is good for you, you can’t take the glamour out of that. Should Thesis Be? It’s like trying to take the thesis writing, glamour out of wwii thesis, sex, trying to take the glamour out of The Rolling Stones … I mean, you know that, it just can’t be done.” Dispatches led to scientific writing, a revival of interest in Page’s work. In an exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in a 300 word essay London in 1980, Page made an issue of the ‘glamour’ of Vietnam and recalled how ‘groovy’ it had been playing with helicopters, tanks and piloting Skyraiders. The point Page was trying to make through his photography was that war always was, and always will be, heavily invested in glamour, with glory and in machoism such is the representation of conflict in popular imagination.

The popular fascination with the writing, glamour of war was therefore perhaps a result of the ways in which war had been previously reported, with much emphasis having been placed on the heroic and gallant actions of ‘good’ soldiers. However, Page delivers an alternative view on the glamour of war. Rather than choosing to portray Vietnam in terms of heroic action, Page captures much more outrageously the paper pollution, feelings and writing, sentiments of a large demographic of women, children, soldiers and correspondents through pictures of great melancholy beauty. By dramatising the word essay, rock and roll aspect of GI culture, Page can be seen as subverting traditional representations of scientific thesis, war and research papers science, suggesting alternative ways to characterise what he believed were the realities of conflict. Scientific Thesis? Consequently, perhaps Page’s most striking pictures are those in which he records the isaiah berlin essay, sixties-psychedelic side of the thesis writing, GI culture, and documents the terrorised black and white American soldiers in “the inanity of their predicament and the refuge they took in dope and rock.” This particular quality of the war was perhaps unique to Vietnam and is what Page refers to when he discusses the ‘glamour’ of war. This is not to say however that Page fails to research science, recognise the more mundane aspects common to all wars such as the thesis writing, destruction of society and the indignity of suffering.

It is simply that Page attempted to capture the enduring sense of reality in all areas to highlight a sense of perceived glamour in terms of suffering. In this sense, Page’s photography centres on the ultimate reality that there is no glamour at all. Page recognises and highlights through his work that the earlier representations are capable of glamorising the indignity of war. Consequently, Page can therefore be regarded as being conscious of the realities of war, whilst still retaining his own private sense of glamour. Tim Page is typical of a collection of Vietnam artists who realised that their texts needed renegotiations of what had gone before them in terms of wwii thesis, form and writing, style, and in doing so, offer new interpretations and how long should a phd thesis be, conclusions in their work. Such was the supremacy and dominance of the scientific, war image in how to a 300 essay popular culture that the reality and lived experiences were sometimes only partially discovered. As a consequence, a distinction between what was considered fact and fiction was exposed to suggest that many experiences were interpreted as fictional stories.

The actual events of combat had given way to images of how the war was fought and what it was fought for, thanks to thesis, various military and political discourses. The narratives discussed in this essay however, focus on the cultural expressions of the actual nature of war and the more contemporary disciplines that were implemented in order to highlight an ultimate attack on the socially, culturally and politically destructive qualities of conflict. In an analysis of the literary realism of conventional war writing, the American soldier is often deemed as inherently proper and constructed in a typically righteous light. It can be argued that this discourse is limited in vision due to the way in which these novels tend to evade the more difficult and unwelcome issues of war, preferring to ‘make sense’ of the experience. As a consequence, these narratives could realistically apply to any example of wwii thesis, conflict such are the conventional methods in terms of scientific thesis writing, style and form, and the way in which they fail to capture the ambiguous realities of war.

The reliance on factual material in an informed account of war also seems inappropriate in that this technique neglects to wwii thesis, address fundamental experiences and lived realities of writing, soldiers. The work of Herr, O’Brien and Page in particular, evoke much more vividly the exhilarating honesty of the Vietnam experience in terms of externalising the research computer science, rock and roll aspect of Vietnam and highlighting diverse elements of hope, power and loss. At the same time, the texts attempt to highlight in powerful terms the development and demise of the individual through the experience of combat, and refuse to lose sight of the very real suffering the conflict caused on a wider level. Even though Herr and O’Brien realise and scientific thesis, admit that sometimes the distinction between fact and fiction is occasionally blurred, their success in capturing the contemporary emotion of Vietnam transcends the idea that informed realism in war writing matters. Ultimately therefore, the writing succeeds as documents which re-evaluate popular ideas by expressions 4, commenting on the more futile and ineffectual nature of battle and the broad consequences of it. The New Journalism , with an anthology edited by scientific, Tom Wolfe and E.W. Johnson. Harper Row Publishers, New York 1973. The Things They Carried , Tim O’Brien. Flamingo Press 1990. Tim Page’s Nam , Introduction by William Shawcross.

Thames and Hudson 1983. American War Literature 1914 to Vietnam , Jeffrey Walsh. A Phd Thesis? Macmillan Press 1982. Vietnam Images, War and Representation , Edited by Jeffrey Walsh and James Aulich. Macmillan Press 1989. Celluloid Wars, A Guide to Film and the American Experience of War , Frank J. Wetta and Stephen J. Curley.

Greenwood Press 1992. Vietnam in American Literature , Philip H. Melling. Twayne Publishers Boston 1990. There are two other articles on scientific thesis, a similar theme in paper water ASToday Online which you might also be interested in. How did Participation in America's Wars affect Black Americans? The treatment of Black soldiers in thesis writing the American forces reflected the discrimination they suffered at home, but their experience led to increased political awareness and helped the development of the Civil Rights movement. This theme is explored by this year’s essay competition winner, Jill Woodland, a final year student at Liverpool John Moores University.

American Studies Resources Centre, Aldham Robarts Library, Liverpool John Moores University, Maryland Street, Liverpool L1 9DE, United Kingdom. Tel 0151-231 3241. © City of Liverpool College, Liverpool John Moores University and the Contributors, 2003. Articles and reviews in this journal may be freely reproduced for use in subscribing institutions only, provided that the source is acknowledged.

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Strategic Planning: A Roadmap to Success. Strategic Planning is among the most widely used and perhaps among the most abused management terminology in modern day business. If one were to ask the CEO of any large organization why Strategic Planning is needed, the responses would be varied: Resources are finite and we need to scientific writing, have clear line-of-sight towards how and why we allocate our resources and to what end… We need a structured process for highlighting opportunities / risks in order to sustain and accelerate the should a phd growth momentum.. We need to scientific thesis, have a defined game-plan for taking on the competition… And the list would go on. The question that one needs to ask is “What exactly is computer science meant by strategic”? There are hundreds of books written on thesis, this subject and its use in business is nothing new, therefore Strategic Planning should be relatively simple, right? Surprising though it may sound, it’s hardly that simple and this article attempts to showcase, from a practitioner’s perspective, some of the pitfalls and misconceptions that abound in the strategic planning process.

Note that this article is designed to touch upon the process that is used for strategic planning in a corporate setting about which little has been written, rather than the tools that are needed to craft a strategy about how to write a 300 which sufficient literature already exists. Let’s look at scientific writing, an example. What is common in the following statements? Our strategy is to be a low cost organization We are pursuing a global strategy Our strategy is to provide unparalleled customer service Our strategy is to be a “first-mover” Our strategy is to grow by papers computer, making selective acquisitions. The only thing common in thesis the above is that none of how to write a 300 word, them is a “strategy”!

(Source– Academy of Management Executives 2001 Vol. 15) Now let’s take a step back and figure out writing why none of the above is a strategy. Strategy is all about making a series of unique decisions to get to a particular goal from a starting point. Note the emphasis on the words “series”, “unique decisions”, “particular”. Now take another look at the above statements?

Are they really decisions, or are they merely an articulation of statement of intent that’s important for their respective organizations? Which organization doesn’t want to a 300, lower its costs? Who doesn’t want to offer great customer service? Wouldn’t your competitors in the same industry say similar things about scientific their intent? The point that is being made here is that while the above may be very critical for an organization, they are not “strategic”. These are things that would need to be done regardless of your strategy.

The key is that no decision is needed here. That the above elements are necessary for any organization is a foregone conclusion. The framework shown below is a good starting point. Research Computer Science. Note that all the questions pertain to “decisions”. These decisions would be unique to a particular organization, would be unique to achieve a particular goal at a particular point in scientific writing time and these decisions are taken in isaiah berlin a series. The key question that practitioners often face is what is the process that is writing used to answer the above questions? While traditional academic learning provides aspiring strategists with the tools to analyze industries, often there isn’t enough literature around the “process” that is berlin essay used for strategy creation.

The following framework is one such attempt to scientific, throw some light on the process that can be followed by practicing strategic planners in order to craft the strategies of their respective organizations. The Strategic Planning Process – A Framework. Boundary Conditions and Specification of decision criteria. This is the first stage in the planning process. It is the job of the Office of Strategy Management to get clarity on how long thesis conclusion be, the boundary conditions / scope and on the decision criteria upfront, before the commencement of the scientific thesis planning cycle. Wwii Thesis. Often the CEO / Promoters have certain preferences about the markets / business that they wish to be in or not be in. They might also have limitations on the resources available and the time horizon for the strategic plan. It is important to know the scope upfront. Also, it’s important to get buy-in on what would be the criteria that would be used by the management team to choose from writing, various strategic options that the team will subsequently develop. Having a general criteria covering pretty much everything doesn’t help. Maximizing market share and profitability in should a phd conclusion a manner that increases shareholder value while minimizing cost, basically means that the decision maker doesn’t know what he wants and scientific thesis writing is hedging his bets.

The more specific the criteria, the isaiah essay easier it will be to choose from multiple options. Scientific Writing. Having loosely defined criteria results in an inability to wwii thesis, choose and sign off on a particular strategic direction. Writing. Also, it becomes important not to have too many criteria or else the practicising manager faces the possibility of having multiple strategic options, many of which may meet some decision criteria, thereby making decision making difficult if not impossible. This area is wwii thesis taught well at academic institutions and there are abundant tools available for analyzing industries. Porters 5 forces, SWOT, PESTLE, SCP, Scenario Planning etc., are some of the tools that a practicing strategist must be familiar with. Appropriate use of scientific thesis, these tools would reveal opportunities and highlight areas of weakness in thesis your organization.

Rather than dwell upon the relevant merits and writing demerits of these tools, it’s important to determine how to take this learning to the next level and get organization-wide buy-in. This analysis assumes that the organization does not implement any major course correction over the planning horizon and carries on business-as-usual. The organization continues to develop operational effectiveness and tactical initiatives to achieve higher profitability, lower cost structure, and increased market share. Should A Phd Thesis Be. The purpose of doing this exercise is to create a baseline that sheds light on scientific thesis writing, where the organization might be in term paper pollution a few years time, had it been business-as-usual. The intent behind the Strategic Planning exercise is that the organization should at the very least bebetter than the baseline. Strategic Options Generation. This step involves formulation of widely different but equally viable strategic options that might be available to the firm in question, and is often the most complicated of scientific, all the steps. It requires the participation of the term water Executive Committee/Senior Leadership Team and is often very time consuming. The typical pitfall in this part of the process is that options are often not even brought to the table because somebody believes they won’t work, or won’t be financially viable. Thesis. The skill of the science practicing strategist lies in getting the leadership team to articulate the thesis logic behind a particular strategic option rather than moving directly into an evaluation stage.

In other words, the leadership team should be able to articulate in one or two pages what is the strategic theme/intent, where in the value chain do you propose to play, what choice of products/services should be sold at what prices, through which channels, and in which geographies in wwii thesis order to maximize value for the organization. It is important to get the logic, in English, right. The Math can follow in subsequent steps. Combining the two often leads to premature assessment and circular reasoning without any closure. The quality of the industry analysis done, gaps highlighted, relative positioning in the industry versus competition and consumers, as well as understanding of revenue drivers and key success factors, all play a critical role in framing different strategic options. Options Assessment and Evaluation. This step is often executed in scientific writing conjunction with the term water project team one level below the Senior Leadership Team. Significant financial analysis is involved at writing, this stage and all modern tools of sensitivity analysis and scenario planning are used.

This step is often fairly intense as it calls for how long a phd conclusion be, decision making under uncertainty. The practicing strategist is expected to spend some time with the project team differentiating among various assumptions, decisions, scenarios etc. Thesis. It is surprising how many use these terminologies interchangeably. For instance, price is wwii thesis a decision. It’s a matter of scientific thesis, choice.

However, the subsequent volume that one could achieve in the future as a result of the price, among other things, is an uncertainty hence assumptions around it would need to isaiah, be made. Similarly, which piece of the value chain to play in is a decision. However, market share achieved subsequently, capital expenditure incurred, etc., is an uncertainty. Here again, the quality of the industry analysis helps in questioning the logic of both decisions and assumptions. Scenario planning, as a tool, helps immensely in scientific this part of the process.

Note that sensitivity analysis and scenario planning are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are different tools that are to be used for different objectives. Sensitivity analysis can be used to determine the impact on the bottom-line, for example if the cost of a critical raw material changes by +/- 10%. Scenario planning is term paper relevant when you need to create a totally different view of the world based on legislation, policy framework, technology, etc. Thesis Writing. For instance, a changing tax regime for tobacco from specific taxation (fixed tax based on length of cigarette) to ad-valorem taxation (tax based on price) would call for a scenario planning type of exercise whereas the term paper water pollution change in volume in response to thesis, a change in price would call for a sensitivity analysis. Similarly, the market growth of renewable energy in response to a change in subsidies/feed-in-tariffs, change in technology, etc. would call for a scenario planning type of exercise, whereas the market growth in a particular market on account of should, different adoption rates would call for a sensitivity analysis.

Articulation of thesis, Strategic Roadmap. Once the strategic options have been assessed, the strategic plan is put up for approval to the decision makers. Wwii Thesis. Some of the key issues that the strategic plan must address are: What is our portfolio game-plan over the planning period? Businesses and roles of businesses Goals Roadmap for achieving the goals Risks / Returns (financial and non-financial) Investments What options did we have while choosing a particular game-plan and why did we prefer one over the other? What are the key assumptions on which the game-plan is based? What are the exit clauses? It may involve a couple of rounds of iteration before it is finalized. Here it is important to note that the strategic plan is a roadmap for where the organization aspires to be in a couple of years and what it would look like when compared against the pre-decided decision criteria. A common mistake made is that people start looking at a Strategic Plan as a “to-do” list with loads of activities and timelines and scientific writing individual names who are responsible for various activities.

We are not there yet. First you need to have an term paper pollution agreed upon plan. Deconstructing the plan into specific activities, timelines, responsibilities etc is part of deployment of thesis writing, strategy. Now that you have a strategy document which has been agreed to by the leadership team, what are you supposed to do? What is the line manager supposed to do?

How does his job dovetail into the larger strategic plan of the organization? What does it mean for the salesman on term pollution, the ground? There are several tools that can be used to deploy strategy and one such tool which is fairly effective is the “Balanced Scorecard”. This enables line-of-sight between the overall corporate objective and the key result areas of the foot soldiers, as can be seen from the chart below. (for more details refer to Kaplan Norton) It is the role of the practicing strategist to deconstruct the strategic plan into its various elements and writing ensure that they are put into timelines with clear responsibilities that dovetail into the Performance Management System within the math grade organization. Strategic Planning versus Budgeting. Many times Strategic Planning is confused with short term budgeting or Annual Business Planning.

There is a world of difference between the two and both have different uses. The following table highlights some of the salient features and scientific thesis differences between the two. Many times people ask whether Strategic Planning as a discipline is still relevant today, given that business conditions change so rapidly. The advent of technology, globalization, hyper competition, increasing legislation, and homework 4 shortening of product life cycles are all making the business environment increasingly complex and scientific thesis writing shortening the planning horizon. However the write a 300 need for planning still exists, all the thesis writing more so today. The nature of the planning exercise needs to be adapted to reflect the nuances of the industry in question and economic conditions prevailing at that point in time. The fundamental principles of planning such as direction setting remain the same, only the application needs to how long should a phd thesis conclusion, be modified. After all, at the end of the day, it’s better to be approximately right than to be precisely wrong! The author is currently working with Moser Baer India Ltd as Head Strategic Planning Marketing. The views expressed in the article are the aurthor’s and scientific thesis do not reflect the views of the organization.

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